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三农问题新思考学术论文|行业论文中英文模板|学术论文校正润色服务

发表时间:2015-11-9  来源:www.yingyuzhushou.com  作者:yingyuzhushou.com  浏览次数:2263  
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内容摘要:目前我国三农领域的新问题主要是:新剪刀差、城乡二元分割和对农民利益保护不够引起了一些农民的焦虑和不满;农业投入不足、基础设施落后和小而分散的经营方式制约了农业健康发展;乡镇政府职能扭曲和部分村组织软弱涣散影响了党群干群关系等。此文从巩固党的执政基础、实现农业可持续发展、加强党对农村工作的领导三个方面阐明解决这些问题的路径,提出了完善农产品价格形成机制、开放城镇户籍、完善家庭土地承包等一系列具体建议。
关 键 词:三农 问题 工作研究
有幸参加今年河北省委组织的加强基层建设年驻村帮扶活动,这是我继1977年驻村学大寨和1986年驻村扶贫之后,又一次驻在村里与农民近距离的接触。在帮扶工作中,我与其他两名河北省农信联社的同志坚持与村民同吃、同住、同劳动、同学习。得益于省委重视和省联社支持,出于对农民的真挚情感,我们为村里办了修水泥路、电网改造、建村民广场等十多件实事,受到村民的认可和贊扬,所在工作组被评为省优秀驻村工作组。应当说今年是我近年来最接地气、最感充实、最有成就感、最难忘的一年。但是,荣誉和贊扬却加重了我驻村期间一直萦绕心头挥之不去的担心和焦虑。这就是,虽然改革开放尤其是2003年起党中央提出“解决好农业农村农民问题是全党工作重中之重”以来,党和国家高度重视三农工作,扶持力度逐年加大,资金投入逐年增加,三农事业已呈现出良好发展势头,但是与上世纪八十年代比,当前农村出现了农民物质生活改善相对缓慢、农业再生产条件恶化、部分基层政权软弱涣散等新问题。对这些问题形成的原因和解决问题的路径、办法,我做了近一年时间的调研,经过了反復思考,现结合学习党的十八大报告体会,把我的所见、所思整理如下:
一、农民的焦虑与巩固党的执政基础问题
我高兴地看到,农民是真心拥护中国共产党的,他们是我党执政的依据和坚实基础。农民感谢党帮他们翻身解放过上好日子,感谢改革开放和免征农业税为他们带来福祉,尤其是年龄大一些的村民,是绝不允许别人说共产党坏话的,即使现实生活中有一些现象使他们看不惯甚至引起不满,但他们认为“共产党的‘经’是好的,只是让下边的‘和尚’给念歪了”。这是经过30多年改革开放和向市场经济过渡中中国农民的主流意识。
但我也确实看到了在一些农民中目前日益增长的焦虑和不满,看到了党的执政基础面临削弱的危险:
1.农民的物质生活改善相对缓慢。虽然国家已经和正在采取措施缩小城乡收入差距,但城镇居民和农民之间的收入比仍由1985年的1.53︰1扩大到2011年的3.13︰1(《中国收入差距正迎来缩小的拐点》赖德胜 陈建伟 人民日报 2012年4月10日)。城镇居民和农民间收入和生活质量差距逐年拉大,日新月异的城市、拔地而起的高架环路、城镇居民日渐增长的公共服务与日渐冷落、基础设施落后、较少得到公共服务的农村形成强烈反差。虽然农民收入和生活质量这些年已有很大提高,但是农民由于没有同步享受到国家经济快速发展带来的成果,被遗忘、不平衡的心理普遍存在。
2.新的“剪刀差”客观存在。这主要表现在农产品价格提升幅度远远低于化肥、农药等工业品涨价幅度和对农民工、劳动派遣用工实行不平等工资福利待遇两个方面。我国有13亿人口,目前的城镇化率接近50%,但“目前中国城镇化如果按照户籍城镇化口径来计算,那麽会下降1/3”(引自中央农村领导小组办公室主任陈锡文在中国城镇化高层国际论坛上的主题发言 东方网 2012年3月25日),这就是说我国目前仍大约有9亿农民。9亿农民为4亿城镇居民提供低价农产品和廉价劳动力,促成了城镇快速发展和居民收入的提高,这就是新的“剪刀差”。由于全国统一的农产品市场尚未形成,目前的农产品最低保护价虽然保护了农民利益,但尚不能反映真实生产成本,加上作为粮食市场主体的国有粮食收购企业很难做到敞开收购,不仅使得国家对流通环节的补贴远高于对农民的补贴,还富了一批倒买倒卖的中间商。
3.改革和市场化进程中对农民利益关註保护不够。由于信息渠道不畅,农民的诉求很难直接反映到决策层,使得农村本已薄弱不该撤并的机构撤并了不少,农民享受到的社会公共产品和服务在某些方面比上世纪八十年代更少,出现了农村上学难、看病难、贷款难、买真货难。在我们与农民的交谈中,许多农民表现出了他们对过去村供销社、信用代办站、合作医疗点、村小学及当时经常驻村的农业技术服务人员的怀念。我个人认为这些机构的撤并应当讲都有其合理因素,但当时毕竟应当听一下农民的意见且不要操之过急搞一刀切。这些年国家虽然加大了对农民的补贴,但是实惠农民并没有全部得到,比如对农机具和家电补贴后,不少农民在购买时遇到了质量下降或价格攀升的问题。
4.部分农民对建设新农村信心不足。家庭土地承包的红利已渐消失,一些村庄随着农田水利设施失修损毁,小农经济靠天吃饭、信息不畅、抗风险能力弱的弊端开始显现,加上种田不挣钱,农民种田积极性不高。尤其是农村年轻一代“务农无地、上班无岗、进城无户、低保无份”,村里待不住、打工受歧视,大部分已常年不在家,处于农民工或流浪工的状态。
5.一些农民道德观念出现滑坡。与上世纪的驻村经歷比,我有一个不好的感觉,就是现在一些农民表现出更多关心自家利益却很少关心集体或关爱他人,集体主义互帮互助观念十分淡薄。今年刚驻村时,已看不到过去村民欢迎上面来村干部的热情,他们普遍认为我们不可能住到村里,不可能为村里办什麽实事,他们说:“十多年了,就没见过省干部能在村过夜的,乡干部来也就是待一会儿就走”。农民的精神文化生活比上世纪八十年代更为贫乏,除由过去的听广播变成看电视外,基本没有别的文化生活。“从土地承包后,村里就没开过全体村民会,也没组织过大家学习”村民如是说。先进思想文化在农村得不到广泛传播,封建、迷信、赌博现象趁机擡头。更为严重的是目前个别村民小偷小摸问题突出,玉米和蔬菜尚未完全成熟,村里的农民就抢着收回家,否则很可能全部丢失,为此,我们还专门为村里安装了11个摄像头和电子监控系统,这也算驻村期间所办的实事之一。

党的十八大报告中关于“ 必须更加自觉地把以人为本作为深入贯彻落实科学发展观的核心立场,始终把实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民根本利益作为党和国家一切工作的出发点和落脚点,尊重人民首创精神,保障人民各项权益,不断在实现发展成果由人民共享、促进人的全面发展上取得新成效”方面的论述,是我们解决一切农民问题的理论依据和行动指南。依据我个人的思考和理解,提出以下建议:
一是要确立农民是党和国家执政基础的地位。我们的政府是人民的政府,毛泽东同志在中共七大口头报告中指出:“所谓人民大众,主要的就是农民”,“忘记了农民,就没有中国的民主革命;没有中国的民主革命,就没有中国的社会主义革命,也就没有一切革命”(《毛泽东农民问题理论对新农村建设的现实意义》张加磊 山东省农业管理干部学院学报 2006年第06期)。我国农民人口数量目前仍远超过城镇居民,且城镇居民大部分为解放后迁入的农民,农民理应成为国家主人,国家意志应体现农民的诉求。我个人不贊成把农民称作“弱势群体”,农民作为国家的主人,其基本权利当然包括与城镇居民一样共享改革发展成果的权利,而不是救济和施舍的对象。确立起农民是党和国家执政基础的地位,是我们解决农民问题的立足点、出发点,理念达不到这个程度,就很有可能再次做出损害农民利益的决策或行动。
二是要建立公正合理的农产品价格形成体系。理顺农产品价格是解决农民问题的基础。应当利用当前互联网已高度发达的条件,尽快建立起全国统一的农产品市场,清除市场壁垒,利用市场来及时发现和校正农产品价格并反过来指导农业生产。国家应制定农产品价格支持政策,通过建立工农业产品间合理的“平价”比例来保护农民的利益。农产品最低保护价应以瘠薄土地农产品生产成本为基础,否则不能解决土地撂荒问题;最低保护价还应逐步包括通货膨胀和缩小城镇与农村间收入差距的因素,否则在基数悬殊的情况下,同样或者农村略高的增长比例仍会使城镇居民与农民间生活差距越拉越大。从经济学角度看,农产品的需求价格弹性大都小于1,农产品单方面提价有利于社会总供给,对社会总需求不会产生抑制作用。此外,国家还应利用好WTO关于农产品的“绿箱”、“篮箱”规定,继续加大对农民的补贴扶持,从多个方面入手来提高农民种田积极性。
三是加快开放城镇户籍。农民进城是任何国家工业化进程的必备条件,还没听说过哪个国家因为农民进城而对这个国家经济发展带来危害的。因为中国农民的情结在于故土难离,所以只要农产品价格能做到随着工业品和居民收入水平同步提高,就能够有效抑制农民盲目进城的沖动,就完全可以让农民自己选择是否进城,而没必要做指标、缴税年限等方面的限制。建成小康社会的难点和重点在于解决好农民问题,最大的内需也在9亿农民,尽快打破城乡分割的二元结构,加快直至全面放开户籍限制,并逐步做到进城农民可以享受到与城镇居民同样的基本住房、子女就学、养老医疗、社会救助和工资福利等保障权利,将会有力地拉动内需,并为我国工业化提供充足劳动力资源,弥补因进入老龄社会而减少的“人口红利”,很可能会给我国经济提供一个长时间较快发展的战略机遇期。
四是要加强农村社会主义核心价值观建设。政治清明和干部敬业公正清廉是社会主义核心价值体系的重要组成部分,对整个社会核心价值观的形成产生着重要影响。各级党政机关和涉农部门应当认真贯彻落实“以保证人民当家作主为根本,以增强党和国家活力、调动人民积极性为目标,扩大社会主义民主,加快建设社会主义法治国家,发展社会主义政治文明”(引自十八大报告)的要求,做到凡是涉及农民切身利益的决策都要充分听取农民意见,凡是损害群众利益的做法都要坚决防止和纠正,多谋农民之利,多解农民之忧,解决好农民最关心最直接最现实的利益问题,主动化解矛盾,密切党群干群关系。要加强农村思想文化建设,用社会主义核心价值观引领农村社会思潮。“人总是要有点精神的”(毛泽东八届二中全会讲话),不能干什麽只盯着钱、想什麽都从自家利益出发,否则农村的和谐稳定、农业产业化、现代化均无从谈起。在农村核心价值观的确立、农民道德素质的提高和丰富农民精神文化生活上,各级党组织尤其是乡镇党委、村党支部应当发挥更大作用。
二、农业基础薄弱与可持续发展问题
这几年农业向社会提供的商品确实在逐年增多,这主要得益于两条:一是籽种和种养方式带来的变化。籽种要感谢袁隆平等科学家,玉米、水稻、小麦等大宗农业作物由于种子革命,产量较上世纪八十年代翻了一番;种养方式变革的效果也十分明显,过去养一头猪到出栏需要八、九个月,而现在时间缩短了近一半。二是农民自身消费的减少。由于生活水平提高农民自己吃的比过去要少得多,基于缺少人手和卫生安全等原因庭院养大牲畜及猪羊鸡兔已很少,加上外出务工人员吃商品粮菜等原因,农民自身消费部分大幅缩减。
农业提供商品增多并不等于农产品产量有了大幅提升,我国粮食安全和重要农产品有效供给仍然是党和政府需十分关註的重大问题。我所看到的是,目前农业基础薄弱和不可持续发展问题在部分农村已表现得比较突出:
1.农田耕作粗放。我所驻的村有163户、655人,常年在外打工的劳动力近200人。由于农民不希望自己的下一代还当农民,村里绝大多数青年不愿也不会种地,所以在家务农的基本是老人和留守妇女。部分土地撂荒,有些土地不搞初耕復耕,积、送农家肥已很少见,大量使用化肥、除草剂、农药使得耕作浅层化、土壤毒素化、土地板结化问题已十分突出。如果没有新一轮种子革命很难想象产量会大幅提升,同时农产品的质量和安全问题也十分令人担忧。
2.农田水利设施建设严重滞后。一些村庄上世纪八十年代前修建的水利设施因使用多年已经或接近报废,当年的灌渠、林网已大部分平做农田,土地缺乏蓄水保水能力,地下水位连年下降。老本已吃殆尽,新的尚未修建,农田水利基础设施欠账太多,已影响到了农业的可持续性发展。
3.土地利用效率不高。因为农民承包的土地同时承担着农村贫困人口生活保障的作用,所以国家规定家庭土地承包长期稳定不变。但30多年过去后新的矛盾出现了:死亡和迁走户口的人有地,新出生的一代农民没地;已外出打工的农民既不种地又不愿把土地转包出去,想种会种地的人却没地或缺地。土地利用率不高还表现在废弃闲置宅基地使农村空心化的问题上,我所在的村目前废弃和闲置的宅基地已超过1/3,而且还在呈加速扩大趋势。从互联网上查,全国农村宅基地为16.8万平方公里折合2.52亿亩,这还不包括村内道路等占地。我国村庄建设长期缺乏规划和管理,已建房的地占就占了,新建房还在不断占用耕地,对农民过多宅基地占用过去曾搞过治理但收效甚微。这个问题不解决,我国确保不低于18亿亩耕地的红线迟早将被突破。 
4.农业金融服务缺失。农业贷款存在点多面宽、额度小、频率高、运营费用高、受自然灾害影响大、缺少抵押物等不利因素。出于盈利最大化考虑,国有商业银行自改革以来已纷纷撤并在农村设立的网点,农村信用社也撤消了村一级代办机构,取消了乡一级机构的法人地位。目前金融“脱农”和“抽水机”趋势十分明显,使得农业生产较上世纪八十年代更难得到资金支持。
综合以上在投入劳力、资金、土地及生产条件等农业生产要素方面出现的问题,怎能不引起我们对农业发展前景的担忧。
农业是国民经济的基础,是关系人民温饱、经济繁荣、国家安全的根基产业,农业可持续发展的问题始终是党和政府高度关註的问题。为此,依据我本人的思考提以下建议:
一是要确立现代化农业的发展导向。农业的出路和可持续发展在于实现农业规模经营、机械化和科学种管,也就是要实现农业现代化。而我国目前的家庭承包经营可称得上是世界最小的规模农业,小且分散的经营方式不支持社会化的大生产,限制了大型农业机械的使用、农业科学技术的推广、名优品牌产品生产及其价格优势的形成,更无法应对国际跨国公司的激烈竞争。实现我国农业现代化,我认为需要同时解决好三个相互关联的难题,即提高农产品价格、放开户籍限制和实现土地合理流转。因为,只有提高农产品价格,才能提高农民种粮积极性,实现农村资源的重新整合,防止农民盲目进城;只有放开户籍限制允许农民进城落户,才能解除农民生活、养老等后顾之忧,减轻农村土地人口承载量,为农业规模经营奠定基础;只有实现了土地合理流转,才能扩大生产规模,实行机械化作业,进而实现农业现代化。这其中,土地流转包含着政治因素可谓是难题中的难题,毕竟中国歷史上几次较大规模农民起义都与土地兼并有关,即所谓农民“手中有粮心中不慌”。应当看到,我国现在已整体进入工业可以反哺农业、城市可以大量吸纳农民的“工业化中期的后半阶段”(《中国进入工业化中后期阶段》中国社会科学院科研局副局长黄群慧 新华社 2012年2月28日),工业经济发展已经为实现农业现代化提供了前所未有的机遇,在这样的有利条件下如果仍一味地担心犹豫,反而会延误我国现代化的进程。家庭土地承包已延续30多年,我个人认为已到了应完善的时候,在放开户籍管理和健全社会保障制度基础上,迁徙、销户农民的承包土地和宅基地应当收回,年青一代在村务农的农民应当分到土地。新一轮土地承包应当将农村人口减少而闲出的耕地和宅基地由村集体集中起来,优先有偿承包给产业龙头企业或种田能手。要尽快建立土地流转市场,让市场发掘土地的真实价值。要提供优惠政策,引导农户组织起来以专业合作社的方式互帮互助,实现产、供、销的有机衔接,加快实现农业机械化和现代化的步伐。
二是要加强农业发展的科学规划。从大的方面看,哪些区域适合发展什麽产业、适合种植什麽品种、适合打造什麽品牌?需要用科学的规划来引导农民;从小的方面说,灌区、林网、道路、村庄怎麽建?都不是一个村自身能解决的,也应当有一个整体的规划。农业发展规划一定要做到实事求是、因地制宜,千万不要搞成一个模式、一刀切,否则很可能出现既劳民伤财又达不到预期效果的问题。比如对人口急剧下降很快就会消失的村,主要应当帮助农民解决面临的生活、生产困难,而不要帮助修建水泥硬化道路,否则还将增加未来恢復耕地的费用。
三是要加大对农业基础设施建设的投入。由于农业自身存在弱质性,各国政府对农业都给予必要扶持。我国对农业的投入也在逐年增加,但由于欠账太多投入力度尚显不足。目前农业投入的体制、机制也存在问题,农民对资金的分配、使用过程知情不多,层层提取管理费、服务费以及屡见不鲜的截留挪用,使得一部分国家的农业投入真正用到村一级已是大打折扣,解决问题时杯水车薪。所以,除了需要增加农业投入,当前更需要尽快解决支农专款的拨付渠道和管理机制方面存在的问题,做到凡是对村的农业投入,能直接与村民见面、能把项目款直接拨付到村、能让“村两委”参与选择施工队伍或自己组织施工、能接受全体村民和上级主管部门共同监督。为说明这件事情的必要,举一个我本人遇到的事例:按照省委要求,工作组所驻村今年要建成一个60平方米的合格卫生室,国家和省财政补助4.2万元,按照当地农民的建房标准基本够用,这确实是一件好事。但在实施中,有关部门要求要由有资质的单位勘探、设计、预算、组织招投标、卫生部门认可的有资质施工单位组织施工,竣工决算要经权威部门审计,然后财政方予拨款。至于费用,县卫生局给出一个预算初步需要10万元,要求工作组或村民出5万元。几经反復最终是村自己找施工队建了卫生室,还垒了院墻、铺了砖路、建了花坛,共开支5.1万元。目前卫生室已顺利通过了市、县验收,财政补助资金尚没到位。让人不理解的是盖几间平房为什麽程序要搞得这麽復杂,如果是不如此不能保证质量,那麽农村现在的房子还能住人吗?
四是要加快发展农业信息和农业科技。目前农民获得信息的来源很不充分,使得农业产业结构调整往往陷入价格上升时一哄而起、价格下降时一哄而散的轮回。打开互联网,推销致富项目的、兜售生长素之类产品的信息不少,但大多是从企业自身利益出发,其中还不乏虚假诱骗成分。现在有必要成立一个站在农民角度的全国性协会组织,从事农业信息的采集、整理、沟通、发布、反馈工作,及时向农民提供权威公正的农业信息,以减少农民在决策上的失误。我国耕地有限,多种了蔬菜就要少种粮食,蔬菜多了就会降价,粮食少了就会涨价,所以从根本上看单纯的农业种植结构调整并不能为农民增加收入,农业增产增收主要还得靠农业科技发展和现代耕作技术的推广。与上世纪八十年代相比,县级农业科技机构一部分由全额开支变为差补或自收自支,乡镇好多农业技术人员已改行他业,基层农业科学技术推广普及的力度有所下降。希望国家能高度关註和解决这方面的问题,加快完善适应农业产品和农业技术的产、学、研、实验、推广、普及为有机整体的农业科技体系,以求提高我国农产品产量、内含价值和国际市场竞争力。
五是要成立专门为三农服务的金融机构。既要解决农业欠账问题,又要加快推进农业现代化,大量的资金需求仅靠财政投入显然远远不够,绝大部分资金还需要金融部门来提供。西方发达国家农业人口少、农业在国民经济所占比例不大,却大都设有不以盈利为目的专门为农民提供贷款的金融机构,而我国严格讲目前还没有一家这样的金融机构。目前的金融改革过多强调金融机构利润最大化,出现了金融业单一市场化取向和组织结构趋于雷同、经营模式趋于雷同、业绩考核趋于雷同的状况,各金融机构从农村资金市场“抽水”再流向收益有保证的大企业大项目,直接面对农业和农民的贷款普遍都在逐年下降。这个问题如果得不到解决,势必会制约我国农业现代化的步伐。为解决农村金融服务缺失问题,陈薇同志和我曾经写文章,唿吁把目前的农村信用社改造成为不以盈利为目的专门为农民、城市低收入者和小微企业提供金融服务的金融机构(详见《加快推进面向低收入群体的金融服务》人民日报内部参阅第35期『总第1076期』 2011年9月9日),希望能引起关註。
 三、农村基层组织涣散与加强党对农村工作的领导问题
农村基层组织主要指乡镇和村两级党、政组织,是国家行使权力的末梢,是联系党和政府与农民间的桥梁。从整体看,目前农村基层组织是尽职的,好的和比较好的占多数; 基层干部工资收入低、工作条件差、分担事物杂、十分辛苦,总体上应当肯定。但不能否认“一些基层党组织软弱涣散,少数党员干部理想信念动摇,宗旨意识淡薄,形式主义、官僚主义问题突出,奢侈浪费现象严重”(引自十八大报告)的问题,在农村基层组织中的表现还是相对突出的。
先说一下乡镇政府面临的问题:
1.乡镇政府职能扭曲。与上世纪80年代相比,那时乡镇政府的主要职能是组织农业生产和农田水利建设、征收农业税公粮和“三提五统”、组织和管理本乡教育卫生等公共事业、推广农业技术和农业机械、履行计划生育管理职能等,工作比较“实”。现在这些职能大部分已不存在,仅剩下管理计划生育一项,但目前大多数农民已不愿多生,计划生育管理工作难度下降;新增加的职能主要有维护社会稳定和招商引资,但严格说维护社会稳定工作应当主要属于公安派出所等政法部门工作,招商引资属于市场和企业行为,不能算乡镇政府真正应当承担的职能。《中华人民共和国地方各级人民代表大会和地方各级人民政府组织法》第六十一条规定乡镇政府有七项职权,现在逐条看来真正能履行的不多。“实”的工作虽然少了,但由于县级机构越分越细,乡镇“虚”的工作却是越来越多,开会、应酬、接待、匯报、数字、报表以及完成各类文字材料已成为乡镇的重要工作。
2.乡镇机构残缺不全。我国绝大多数法律授予的执法权在县级及以上单位,乡镇政府执法本来就无法可依,所以机构也必然会残缺不全。从本世纪初开始,乡镇有执法收费权的站所已大部分陆续收回县级主管部门,但实际工作中乡镇政府却在缺少执法权的情况下越来越多地承担起了越权执法的任务。
3.乡镇财政有名无实。乡镇财政没有自己的地方税种和税收分成,经费来源全部为县财政拨款,前几年为完成上级税收任务不乏空转、买税,又形成了隐性赤字。开支不小,财力不足,根本谈不上提供公共服务和履行公共管理职能。依我驻村所在乡为例,全乡干部73人,有22人属于财政全额工资,51人县财政只给每人每月540元的补助,公用经费少得可怜,但乡里几乎每天都需接待各方来客,还养了三辆小车,确实十分困难。
4.个别乡镇干部作风散漫。财政全额开支的乡镇干部月工资也就一千多元,差额工资的挣得更少,一些乡镇干部就自己或让亲属另谋生计。县乡干部谋的生计中又有一部分与农业专款有了联系,加上县主管部门和乡镇因为经费不足有时也难免在农业专款中做些文章,就使得部分农业专款在使用时无论找有资质的单位企业也好、集中采购公开招标也罢,都只会增加造价而且降低质量。 
基于以上四个方面的原因,再加上上级对乡镇不切实际的过多要求和数不清“一票否决”高悬利剑,使得个别乡镇领导采取欺上压下的做法,用乡镇干部的话叫起到“防火墻”作用。在这面“防火墻”下,下级的真实情况上级了解不到或睁只眼闭只眼;上级的精神和要求也很难贯彻下去。垒“防火墻”的干部工作靠写、数字靠估、经验靠编、荣誉靠吹,其危害可谓大焉。
再说村级组织存在的问题:
1.村干部得不到应有的保障。村干部补贴不多又基本没有上升的渠道;当干部时管事就难免会得罪人,得罪了人惹出了事,乡级一般撑不了腰,尤其是被得罪人上访到市、县,如果不是原则问题,村干部一般会“坐蜡”;在职时得罪人多了,退下来后上级不管、本村人责骂。所以一部分村干部认为没理由和必要去管事。
2.村里没钱办事。农村实行联产承包责任制后,绝大多数村的集体财产早已分光卖尽,原有村办企业或倒闭或卖给了个人,前些年村里办事主要靠向村民收取提留款。国家“费改税”取消村级提留后,提留转变成农业税附加,因为不再用村干部去收钱了,村财务也就上收到了乡镇,实行“村财乡管”。取消农业税后,留在乡镇的农业税附加又变为上级财政对村级的转移支付。这部分钱除给村干部个人补贴外有一部分被乡镇截留,多数村干部甚至不知道还有这麽一笔应当属于村使用的资金。一些村庄即便想办点修路打井方面的实事好事,因为没钱也无法实施;
3.村级没有办事自主权。上级下来的专款很多需要农民“一事一议”自筹资金来进行配套,“一事一议”款从农民手里收齐后要把钱交到乡镇或县主管部门指定账户,由乡镇或县主管部门统一管理使用,至于怎麽使用村干部和农民一般很少能够参与,却要承担资金使用和报账主体的责任。且往往交的钱不少办的事不好、受上累挨上骂、事倍而功半,使得一些村干部也没什麽积极性去办事;
4.部分村干部没精力去管事。村干部一般都有承包土地,有的还或搞养殖、或种大棚、或开小卖部,自家活太多的自然没功夫打理村里工作。这些年又兴时企业家兼任村干部,想法是让其带领群众一同致富,而实际上其中一些企业家当村干部无非是为了自己和县、乡领导混个脸熟,以利于自己企业的发展,精力并不在村。
由于这四个方面的原因,部分村级组织确实作用发挥得不好,有些村说它瘫痪也不为过。
乡镇政府和村级组织目前的现状是多方面因素造成的,自然不能全怪乡村干部。但是,目前这种局面也确实成为农民对社会不满和一些地方党群干群关系恶化的重要原因,应当引起我们的高度关註并认真加以解决。为此我提出以下建议:
一是要正确把握加强党对农村工作领导的科学内涵。党对农村的领导是党运用自身极高的政治权威配给社会资源,引导农民实现政治目标和社会发展的过程。而党在农村的极高的政治权威来自于农民的信任和拥护、是农民赋予的。从这个角度理解,我认为加强党对农村工作的领导实质上是党不断在农民群众中汲取智慧、凝聚力量,进而实现对不适应农村生产力发展的生产关系和上层建筑进行变革和完善,促进生产力发展,实现农民愿望的过程。其遵循的宗旨是全心全意为农民服务。其基本方法,一条是宣传和发动农民,即通过宣传贯彻党的路线方针政策、培育农民集体主义和艰苦奋斗精神、弘扬社会主义新风尚来凝聚农村社会力量;另一条是相信和依靠农民,即通过农民当家作主起来负责、监督党和政府及其工作人员来确保权为民所用。“必须坚持人民主体地位”(引自十八大报告)是党的根本理念,是中国特色社会主义的底线和生命,也是跳出黄炎培所说的“歷史周期律”永葆党和社会主义国家青春的政治法宝。
二是要理清政府对农村社会管理的边界。一方面要健全基层群众自治机制。落实好十八大报告提出的“在城乡社区治理、基层公共事务和公益事业中实行群众自我管理、自我服务、自我教育、自我监督,是人民依法直接行使民主权利的重要方式。要健全基层党组织领导的充满活力的基层群众自治机制,以扩大有序参与、推进信息公开、加强议事协商、强化权力监督为重点,拓宽范围和途径,丰富内容和形式,保障人民享有更多更切实的民主权利”;另一方面要尽量缩减政府对农村经济社会的直接管控。充分发挥市场自我调节和农村社会自治机制的作用,重新梳理县级政府的职责,“深化行政审批制度改革,继续简政放权,推动政府职能向创造良好发展环境、提供优质公共服务、维护社会公平正义转变。”(引自十八大报告)
三是要把村级组织建成坚强的战斗堡垒。村级组织稳则农村社会稳,“基础不牢地动山摇”。我认为改变当前村级组织软弱涣散现状需要多措并举,切实做到村级组织有职、有责、有权、有钱和村干部有理想、有精力、有能力、有保障:“村财乡管”不符合村民自治原则应交权归村,国家对村级组织的转移支付、农业专款补贴应直接拨付到村;实行“一定三有”,在对村级组织和村干部确定任期目标和年度工作责任的同时,做到村干部在任有待遇、干好有希望、老年有保障;落实《村民委员会自治法》各项规定,实行村务公开,办事要符合村民意愿,工作要接受村民监督;加强党员队伍建设,提高农村党员的质量和素质,充分发挥党员的先锋模范作用;加强农村文化建设,坚持不懈地用马克思主义中国化最新理论教育党员群众,用中国特色社会主义共同理想凝聚力量,用热爱家乡建设新农村的美好前景鼓舞斗志,用社会主义荣辱观引领风尚。需特别提出的是,基于当前村级组织面临的问题,从县、乡选派优秀党员干部脱岗驻村担任村支部书记,我认为确实是个行之有效办法,一些地方已经实验并取得显着成效,建议有关部门在及时总结完善的基础上形成制度,普遍推广;此外,从各级党委、政府抽调优秀干部组成驻村工作组对落后村帮扶,既是维护发展农民利益之所在、也是密切党和政府与农民群众血肉联系夯实党的执政基础的现实需要、还是锻炼培养干部的育人工程,我认为很有必要,关键是要抓实并取得实效。
四是要减少农村的行政管理层次。我本人曾多年在县政府工作,下村扶贫时兼任过一年乡党委副书记,对乡镇有着深厚情感。撤销乡镇这一级政府是我最难说出口的一个建议,但是,既然目前乡镇政府既没有多少符合公共行政要求的职能,又不具备履行公共行政职能的能力,那麽也就失去了继续存在的理由。适应信息时代和专业化管理的要求,现代企业已普遍实行扁平化管理,其成功经验应当引入行政管理之中。现在农村的交通通讯已很发达,县级政府行政审批服务中心和部门办公网已普遍建立,现代化办公已进入机关,将乡镇政府承担的行政职能收归县级政府归口管理、扁平运作,应当不是很困难的事情。况且中国歷史上各朝代都实行“政不下县”、“王权止于县政”,外国也大都为三级行政管理,我国由目前的五级行政管理改为四级行政管理,应当说也未尝不可行。如果乡镇政府撤销,乡镇人大、乡级财政也应同时撤销;直接为“三农”服务的站所尤其是农业科技人员队伍应当保留和加强,并归口县有关部门管理。从加强农村基层党建的现实需要看,乡镇党委不仅应当保留、在一定时期内还需加强,并加快实现其向“以服务群众、做群众工作为主要内容”(引自十八大报告)的服务型基层党组织转变。实行县级行政扁平化管理,可以缩短决策层与农民之间距离,提高管理快速反应和行政效率,加快上下之间信息流速,增强对“三农”事业的服务和管理能力,抑制因行政繁苛可能带来的寻租行为,重新找回和增强农民对地方政府的信任,进而促进县级政府由大政府向强政府的转变,为全面建成小康社会发挥出更大的作用。
我是个有36年党龄的共产党员,以上对新三农问题的思考出于个人内在党性要求,且有一种不吐不快的压力。但由于本人接触面和能力水平所限,一些观点建议肯定有不妥之处,还望批评、谅解。最后鸣谢一些县乡村干部为此文的形成提供资料和提出的修改意见。
译文:
Abstract: At present, China's rural areas are mainly new problems: new scissors, urban-rural split is not enough to protect the interests of farmers and caused some anxiety and discontent of farmers, lack of agricultural inputs, poor infrastructure and small and decentralized mode of operation restricted the healthy development of agriculture, the township government functions distortions and part of the village organizations are weak and lax affected the party cadre, etc. This article from consolidating the party's base, to achieve sustainable agricultural development, strengthen the Party's leadership over rural work three aspects clarify the path to solve these problems, by improving the agricultural price formation mechanism, open urban household registration, improve the household land contract and a series of specific recommendations. 

Keywords:: rural issues Work Research
Fortunate enough to participate in this year of the Hebei Provincial organizations helping to strengthen grassroots construction activities in towns and villages, which I learn from Dazhai village following the 1977 and 1986 after a poor village, another resident in the village close contact with farmers in Helping work, I am with the other two, Hebei Province Rural Credit Cooperative Union comrades insist with the villagers eat, live, with labor, with the study thanks to provincial attention and support of the provincial association, out of farmers' sincere emotion, we do the repair for the village cement road, power grids, built more than a dozen things for the villagers Square, recognized and praised by the villagers, where the Working Group was rated as outstanding village working group. should be said that in recent years, this is my the most ground gas, the most fulfilling and most rewarding, the most memorable of the year, however, honor and praise, but increased during the residency has been haunting my lingering fear and anxiety, which is that although the reform and opening especially since 2003, the CPC Central Committee put forward the "peasant agriculture and rural areas to solve the problem of the party's work is a top priority," since the party and the country attached great importance to rural work, to support efforts to increase year after year, capital investment increased year by year, agriculture has been the cause of showing a good momentum of development, but compared with the eighties of last century, the rural areas there has been relatively slow to improve the material life of farmers, agricultural production conditions deteriorate, some grass-roots political power are weak and lax, and other new issues. reasons for the formation of these issues and solve problems path, way, I did nearly a year of research, after much thought, now combined with the party's 18 report learning experience, to what I see, think and are summarized as follows:
First, farmers' anxiety and consolidate the party's base issue
I am pleased to see that the farmers really support the Chinese Communist Party, they are my basis for the ruling party and a solid foundation. Peasant emancipation thank the party to help them live a good life, thanks to the reform and opening up and bring them well-being of agricultural tax exemption, especially some of the older villagers, never allowing others to speak ill of the Communist Party, even though in real life there are some phenomena that they could not understand or even cause dissatisfaction, but they think, "the Communist Party 'by' is good, just let the bottom The 'Monk' to read distorted. "This is the result of 30 years of reform and opening up and the transition to a market economy in China farmers mainstream consciousness. 

But I Did See Some Farmers Currently Growing In Anxiety And Dissatisfaction, Saw The Party's Base Facing Danger Of Erosion:
A farmers improve the material life of the relatively slow, although countries have and are taking steps to narrow the urban-rural income gap, but between urban residents and farmers income ratio still in 1985 expanded to 1.53 ︰ 1 ︰ 1 2011 3.13 (< <China is ushering in narrowing the income gap inflection >> Chen Jianwei Lai Desheng Daily April 10, 2012) of urban residents and farmers income and quality of life gradually widening the gap, the ever-changing city, where they stand elevated loop urban residents and growing increasingly neglected public services, infrastructure, public services in rural areas receive less stark contrast, although farmers' income and quality of life has greatly improved over the years, but farmers enjoy the country's economy because there is no synchronization the rapid development of the fruit, forgotten, psychological imbalance prevalent. 

2 new "scissors" objective reality, which is mainly manifested in the prices of agricultural products to enhance the rate is much lower than chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other industrial products, and price increases for migrant workers, labor and employment practice unequal wages and benefits dispatched two aspects of There are 1.3 billion people, the current urbanization rate of nearly 50%, but "if in accordance with China's current urbanization urbanization caliber to calculate the household, it will drop 1/3" (quoted from the Central Leading Group Office of Chen Xiwen, director of rural urbanization in China high-level international forum on the theme of speeches LONDON March 25, 2012, which means that China is still about 900 million farmers .9 million peasants to 400 million urban residents to provide cheap agricultural products and cheap labor, contributed to the rapid development of urban and residents' income increase, which is the new "scissors." because the country has not yet formed a unified agricultural market, the current minimum price of agricultural products, although protecting the interests of farmers, but can not reflect the true cost of production, coupled with the state as the main grain market grain enterprises difficult to achieve open purchase, not only makes the state subsidy circulation is much higher than subsidies to farmers, but also a number of rich Daomaidaomai middlemen. 

3 the process of reform and market interests of farmers concerned about inadequate protection due to poor access to information, is difficult to directly reflect the aspirations of farmers to decision-making in rural areas should not merge the already weak institutions merge a lot of farmers enjoy the social public goods and services in some areas less than the eighties of last century, the emergence of rural schooling, medical care, loans, buy genuine difficulty in our conversations with farmers, many farmers showed supply and marketing cooperatives to their village in the past, credit agency stations, cooperative medical point, the village primary school and was often agricultural village remembrance service technician, I personally think that these institutions should merge speaking has its rational factors, but it was after all should listen to the views of farmers and do not be too hasty to engage across the board all these years despite increased state subsidies to farmers, but the farmers did not all get the benefits, such as subsidies for farm machinery and appliances, many farmers in the purchase of quality encountered problems falling or rising prices. 

4 Some farmers lack confidence in building a new countryside. Household land contract bonus gradually disappeared, some villages with irrigation facilities damaged disrepair, peasant economy dependent on the weather, poor information, weak anti-risk ability drawbacks began to emerge, plus do not make money on the farm, the farmers are not enthusiastic about farming, especially the younger generation in rural areas, "farming without land, no post office, no city households, guaranteeing that no copies of" village Daibu Zhu, wage discrimination, the majority have been perennial not at home, in the work of migrant workers or homeless status. 

5 Some farmers moral landslide occurred with residency experience over the last century, I have a bad feeling that some farmers are now more concerned about their own interests showed little concerned about the collective or caring for others, collectivism Hubang Mutual concept is very weak. village just this year, we have to see past the villagers welcome to village cadres above the warm, they generally think that we can not live in the village, it is impossible to do any real work for the village, they said: "Ten years , and have not seen the provincial cadres overnight in the village and township cadres to which is to be left for a while. "spiritual and cultural life of farmers eighties of last century more than the poor, in addition to listening to the radio from the past becomes watching TV In addition, no other basic cultural life. "From the land contract, the village all the villagers will be opened no, there is no organized learning" the villagers said. advanced ideology and culture in the rural areas are not widespread, feudal superstition, gambling phenomenon took the opportunity to rise. Even more serious is the problem of outstanding individual villagers petty theft, corn and vegetables not yet fully mature, the village farmers rushing to recover the house, or is likely to be lost, and we have also dedicated to the village installed 11 cameras and electronic monitoring systems, which are also considered during the residency run by practical one. 
The party's 18 report on "must be more conscious of the people-oriented as thoroughly implement the scientific concept of development the core position, and always realize, safeguard and develop the overwhelming majority of the people's fundamental interests as the party and the state all the starting point and foothold, respect their creativity, protect their rights and interests, and constantly in achieving development results shared by the people, and promote the comprehensive development of new achievements "aspects of discourse, is that we solve all the problems of farmers theoretical basis and guide to action. based on my personal thinking and understanding, made the following recommendations: 
First, we must establish the farmer is the ruling party and the state based on the status of our government is the people's government, Comrade Mao Zedong in the Chinese Communist seven oral report states: "The so-called masses, the main is that farmers", "forget the farmers, on the Without China's democratic revolution, without China's democratic revolution, it is not China's socialist revolution, there is no all revolutionary "(<< Mao Zedong's theory of peasant question the reality of the new rural construction Significance ZHANG Lei Shandong Agricultural Administrators' College 2006 No. 06. Farmers population is still far more than urban residents, and the majority of urban residents moved liberation of the farmers, farmers should become masters of the country, the state should reflect the will of the demands of farmers and I personally do not agree to farmers called "vulnerable groups", the farmers as masters of the country, including of course their fundamental rights as urban residents the right to share the achievements of reform and development, rather than relief and objects of charity. established farmers from the ruling party and the state based on position, is We solve the problem of farmers' standpoint, the starting point, the concept reached this level, it is likely to harm the interests of farmers once again make decisions or actions. 

The second is to establish a fair and reasonable system of agricultural price formation. Rationalize prices of agricultural products is the basis for solving the problem of farmers. Should capitalize on the current Internet has a highly developed conditions, so as to establish a unified national agricultural markets by removing market barriers to timely use of market detection and correction agricultural prices and in turn guide the agricultural production. States should establish agricultural price support policies, through the establishment of industrial and agricultural products between reasonable "parity" proportional to protect the interests of farmers. agricultural minimum price should be barren land cost of agricultural production basis, or can not solve the problem of land abandonment, minimum price should also include the inflation and gradually narrow the income gap between urban and rural elements, or in the case of base disparity, the same or a slightly higher growth in rural areas the proportion of urban residents will remain with farmers widening the gap between the life from the perspective of economics, the price elasticity of demand for agricultural products is less than a majority of agricultural products in favor of unilateral price increases total social supply of aggregate demand does not produce inhibition. Additionally, the state also should make good use of WTO on agricultural "green box", "basket case" requirements, continue to increase subsidies to farmers to support from several aspects to enhance the enthusiasm of farmers. 

Third, accelerate the opening up urban residence. Farmers into the industrialization process of any country prerequisites have not heard of any country because farmers into the city and economic development of this country harm, because China is the homeland of the complex difficulties of farmers away, so long as prices of agricultural products and industrial products can do with the income level of residents simultaneously improve, farmers will be able to effectively suppress the urge to blindly into the city, they can choose whether to allow farmers into the city, but do not need indicators, tax age and other restrictions. difficulties and building a moderately prosperous society focused on solving the problem of farmers, the biggest domestic demand are 900 million farmers, as soon as possible to break the urban-rural division of the dual structure, accelerate until the full liberalization of the household registration restrictions, and gradually make progress City farmers and urban residents enjoy the same basic housing, children education, pension health care, social assistance and protection of rights such as wages and benefits, will effectively stimulate domestic demand, and to provide sufficient labor resources of China's industrialization, and compensate for an aging society reduction of the "demographic dividend", is likely to give our economy a long and rapid development of strategic opportunities. 

The fourth is to strengthen the construction of rural socialist core values. More politically impartial and incorruptible cadres dedicated socialist core value system is an important component of the core values of society as a whole has an important impact on the formation of all levels of party and government organs and agriculture-related departments should conscientiously implement the "to ensure that the people are the masters as fundamental to enhancing vitality of the Party and the state, to mobilize the enthusiasm of the people as the goal, expand socialist democracy, accelerate the construction of a socialist country ruled by law and develop socialist political civilization" (quoted from eighteen Great reporting requirements, so that all decisions involving the vital interests of farmers should fully listen to the views of farmers, those who damage the interests of the masses must resolutely prevent and correct practices, resourceful and benefit farmers, farmers fear for multiple solutions, to solve most farmers concerned about the most direct and practical interests, take the initiative to resolve conflicts, close party. should strengthen ideological and cultural construction in rural areas, with the core values of socialism led rural social thought. "People always want a little spirit" (Mao-eighth Second Plenary Session of speech, do not just stare at the money and want everything from their own interests, or harmony and stability in rural areas, agricultural industrialization and modernization are out of the question. establishment of core values in the rural areas, improving the quality of farmers and rich moral spiritual and cultural life of farmers, especially the township party organizations at all levels, the village Party branch should play a greater role.
Second, weak agricultural foundation and Sustainable Development
In recent years agricultural commodities provided to the community is indeed increasing year by year, mainly due to two: one ZiZhong and breeding methods to bring change. ZiZhong scientists like to thank Longping, corn, rice, wheat and other bulk agricultural crops of seed revolution, production has doubled over the last century, the eighties, the effect of planting patterns change very obvious in the past raised a pig to slaughter takes eight or nine months, and now time is shortened by nearly half. two farmers' own consumption is reduced due to improved living standards of the farmers themselves eat much less than in the past, based on the lack of manpower and health and safety and other reasons courtyard raise livestock and swine and sheep chickens and rabbits have very little to eat grain plus migrant workers dishes reasons, some farmers own consumption substantially reduced. 

Agriculture does not mean the provision of goods increased agricultural production has increased dramatically, China's food security and the effective supply of major agricultural products are still very concerned about the party and the government needs a major problem I see is that the current agricultural foundation is weak and unsustainable development issues In some rural areas have behaved more prominent: 
1 Tillage extensive and I have in the village of 163, 655 people working outside year round workforce of nearly 200 people. Because farmers do not want their own children also when farmers, the vast majority of young people do not want the village will not be kind , and thus the basic farming at home is elderly and women left behind. part of the land abandoned, and some engage in primary tillage plowing land, plot, sending manure been rare, extensive use of fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides and so shallow tillage technology, soil toxins desertification, land compaction of the problem has been very prominent, if not difficult to imagine that a new round of revolution seed production will increase substantially the same quality and safety of agricultural products is also very worrying. 

2 seriously lagging behind the construction of farmland water conservancy facilities and some villages in the eighties of last century before the construction of water conservancy facilities have been used for many years due to or close to retirement, when the irrigation channels, has been largely flat to make farmland shelterbelts, water retention capacity of the land lacks water, groundwater Bit declined year by year. stakes have been eating and exhausted, the new has not yet built, irrigation infrastructure debts too, has affected the sustainability of agriculture. 

3 land use efficiency is not high because the land contracted by farmers bear the rural poor while living security role, the state provides long-term stability household land contract remain unchanged, but 30 years after the last new contradictions emerged: Death and relocate There are accounts of people, the new generation of farmers not born, it has been neither peasant migrant workers are unwilling to farming the land subcontract, who want to kind of be farming land but no ground or lack of land utilization is not is also reflected in the high idle abandoned homestead in rural hollowing issue, where I currently abandoned and idle village homestead has more than 1/3, but also accelerating tendency to expand from the Internet check, the National Rural homestead is equivalent to 2.52 million mu of 168,000 square kilometers, which does not include the village roads area. chronic lack of village construction planning and management of land has been accounted for housing accounted for, the new building is constantly occupied land, the peasants had Multi homestead occupied in the past been engaged in governance, but with little success. this problem is not resolved, to ensure that no less than 18 million mu of arable land red line sooner or later will be exceeded. 

4 missing agricultural financial services. Agricultural loans exist points wide, the amount of small, high frequency, high operating costs, a large affected by natural disasters, lack of collateral and other unfavorable factors to consider for profit maximization, since the reform of state-owned commercial banks have since been established in rural areas merge outlets, rural credit cooperatives also undo the village an agency agency, the abolition of the legal status of village-level institutions currently finance "off the farm" and "pump" the trend is very clear, so that agricultural production harder than the eighties of last century to get financial support. 

Based on the above is put into labor, capital, land and other agricultural production conditions, factors of production problems, could not cause us concern about the outlook for agricultural development. 

Agriculture is the foundation of national economy, is the relationship between people's subsistence, economic prosperity, national security, the foundation of industry, agriculture sustainable development issue has always been highly concerned about the party and the government issues this end, based on my own thinking to mention the following recommendations: 
First, we must establish the development of modern agriculture-oriented. Way and sustainable development of agriculture is to achieve scale agricultural operations, mechanization and scientific kind of pipe, that is, to achieve agricultural modernization, while China's current household contract management can be regarded as the world's smallest scale agriculture, small and decentralized mode of operation does not support the socialization of large-scale production, limiting the use of large agricultural machinery, agricultural science and technology promotion, famous brand products and the formation of price advantage, but can not cope with multinational companies competition. realization of China's agricultural modernization, I think the need to solve three interrelated problems that raise agricultural prices, open residence restrictions and achieve reasonable transfer of land, because only raise prices of agricultural products in order to improve farmers' enthusiasm for growing grain, re-integration of the rural resources, prevent farmers blindly into the city, only release the residency restrictions allowing farmers settled into the city in order to lift peasant life, pension and other worries, alleviating rural population carrying capacity of land, lay the foundation for the large-scale agricultural operations, and only realized reasonable transfer of land to expand the production scale, the implementation of mechanized operations, thus achieving agricultural modernization. Among these, the land transfer contain political factors can be described as the problem of problems, after all, the history of Chinese peasant uprisings are several large-scale mergers and related land , the so-called farmers' hands of food hearts do not panic. "It should be noted that China has now entered a whole industry can be nurturing agriculture and cities can absorb a large number of farmers," the latter half of the mid-industrialization phase "(<< China into the later stages of industrialization >> CASS research Qunhui Deputy Secretary Huang Xinhua News Agency February 28, 2012, the industrial economic development for the realization of agricultural modernization has provided unprecedented opportunities, in such favorable conditions blindly worry if you still hesitate, it will delay our modernization. household land contract has lasted 30 years, I personally think that has to be perfect when you release the household management and a sound social security system based on movement, pins farmers contracting land and homestead should be recovered, the young generation of farmers in the village farming land should be assigned to the new round of land contracting and idle rural depopulation should be out by the village collective land and homestead together, first paid or contracted to industry leading enterprises farming experts. establish the land as soon as possible transfer market, so that the true market value of the land to explore. want to provide preferential policies to guide farmers to organize themselves in a professional manner cooperatives help each other to achieve production, supply and marketing of organic convergence, accelerate the pace of agricultural mechanization and modernization. 

The second is to strengthen the scientific planning of agricultural development from the big side, what areas for the development of what industry, what varieties suitable for cultivation, suitable to build what brand? Need to use science to guide the planning of farmers, from small side, irrigation, forestry network, roads, villages how to build? village itself can not be a solution, but also should have an overall planning of agricultural development planning must seek truth from facts, according to local conditions, do not mess a pattern across the board, or is likely to occur both costly and achieving the desired effects of the problem, such as a sharp decline in the population of the village will soon disappear, should help farmers solve major face life, production difficulties, and do not help build hardened cement road, otherwise will increase future recovery the cost of land. 

The third is to increase investment in agricultural infrastructure due to weak nature of agriculture itself exists, governments are given the necessary support to agriculture Our country has also increased investment in agriculture, but because of too many outstanding loans still significant input into deficiencies present agricultural inputs institutions, mechanisms are also problems, the farmers of the allocation of funds, the process of using an informed few layers of extracting management fees, service fees, and frequent rejection of embezzlement, making part of the country's agricultural inputs used in the village a real level is greatly reduced, problem solving drop in the bucket, so in addition to the need to increase investment in agriculture, the current need to solve as soon as possible disbursement of funds for supporting agriculture channels and problems in management mechanism, so that all of the village's agricultural inputs directly with Villagers meet, can project funds directly allocated to the village, to make "two committees" involved in choosing their own construction team or the organization of construction, can accept all the villagers and the joint supervision of the higher authorities. To illustrate this matter is necessary, give an I I encountered examples: in accordance with provincial requirements, residency working group to build a 60 square meters this year qualified health room, the national and provincial financial subsidies 42,000 yuan, according to local farmers building standard basic enough, it is indeed is a good thing, but in the implementation, the authorities claim to the unit by a qualified exploration, design, budget, organization bidding, health department approved organization qualified construction unit construction, completion of final accounts to audit by the authoritative department, before the Financial Fang I funding. As costs County Health Department gives a preliminary budget for 10 million, requested the Working Group or the villagers out of 50,000 yuan. repeated several times eventually find their own construction team built the village health room, but also a barrier walls, Brick paved road, built flower beds, a total expenses 51,000 yuan. Currently clinic has successfully passed the city, county and acceptance, financial assistance funds are still not in place. people do not understand is why the program cover a few bungalows to do so complex, if it is not so can not guarantee the quality, then the house is now possible to live in rural areas people do? 
The fourth is to accelerate the development of agricultural information and agricultural science and technology is currently the source of farmers' access to information is very full, making the adjustment of agricultural structure tends to herd into a price rise, price drops quitting en masse reincarnation Open Internet, marketing enrichment projects, selling information products auxin like a lot, but mostly from their own interests, which also lack fake decoy ingredients. now necessary to set up a standing point of view of the national associations of farmers engaged in agricultural information collection, collation, communication, publishing, feedback, and timely to provide farmers with agricultural information and impartial authority to reduce the farmers in the decision-making mistakes. of limited arable land, grain crops and a variety of vegetables will be few, vegetable prices will be more , food prices will be less, so from the fundamental point of view purely agricultural planting structure adjustment does not increase income for farmers, agricultural production and income primarily have to rely on agricultural science and technology development and the promotion of modern farming techniques with the eighties of last century compared to the county agricultural science and technology institutions in part by the full expenditure becomes poor fill or self-supporting, the township has diverted a lot of agricultural technicians He industry, primary agricultural science and technology popularization efforts declined. want the country to be highly concerned about and solve this problem, accelerate the improvement of agricultural products and agricultural technology to adapt production, learning and research, experiment, promotion, popularization of agricultural science and technology system, organic whole, in order to improve our agricultural production, embedded value and competitiveness in international markets . 

Fifth, we should set up a special service for the rural financial institutions is necessary to solve the problem of agricultural debts, but also to accelerate the modernization of agriculture, a lot of money demand financial investment alone is clearly not enough, most of the money needed to finance sector provided agricultural population less developed western countries, not the proportion of agriculture in the national economy, but mostly a non-profit dedicated to the farmers for the purpose of providing loans to financial institutions, and our strictly speaking, there is no one of this financial institution. too much emphasis on the current financial reform financial institutions to maximize profits, the emergence of a single market-oriented financial and organizational structure tends to be identical, similar business model tends, performance evaluation tends to identical conditions, financial institutions from the rural capital market. " pumping "and then flows to gain a guaranteed large enterprises and projects, directly facing the agriculture and farmers loans generally are declining. If this problem is not resolved, is bound to restrict the pace of agricultural modernization order to solve the lack of rural financial services problem, Chen Wei comrades and I have been writing articles urging the current transformation of rural credit cooperatives to become not-for-profit dedicated to the farmers, urban poor and small and micro enterprises to provide financial services to financial institutions (see << accelerate financial services for low-income groups >> See Section 35 within the People's Daily "Total No. 1076" September 9, 2011, hoping to attract attention.

Third, with the strengthening of rural grassroots party organizations and lax leadership problem in rural work
Rural grassroots organizations mainly refers to two township and village party, government organization, is a national exercise of power tip, is to contact the party and the bridge between the government and farmers from the whole, the current rural grass-roots organizations are conscientious, good and better The majority; grassroots cadres low wages, poor working conditions, sharing things complicated, very hard, on the whole should be affirmed, but can not deny that "some grassroots Party organizations are weak and lax, a small number of party members and cadres ideals and beliefs shaken, purpose consciousness, formalism bureaucratic issues outstanding, extravagance and waste serious "(quoted from eighteen reported problems in the rural grass-roots organizations in the performance is relatively prominent. 

Let Me Talk About The Problems Faced By The Township Government:
1 functions of township governments distorted. Compared with the 1980s, when the township government's main function is to organize agricultural production and water conservancy construction, agricultural grain tax levy and the "three mentioned five reunification", the organization and management of education and health Hongo public utilities, to promote agricultural technology and agricultural machinery to fulfill family planning management functions, work more "real." Most of these functions are now no longer exists, leaving only the management of family planning one, but most farmers have been reluctant to health, family planning management work difficulty decline, the newly added functions mainly to maintain social stability and investment, but strictly speaking, maintaining social stability should be the main part of the police station and other political and legal departments, investment is a market and business behavior, can not be considered township Government should assume the functions of the real. << People's Republic of local people's congresses and local people's governments at the Organic Law >> Article 61 provides the township government has seven terms, and now it seems one by one is not really able to fulfill more. "real" work, though a small, but because of county agencies become ever more finely, the township "virtual" work is more and more, meeting, entertainment, hospitality, reporting, figures, reports, and complete all kinds of text materials have become the important work of the township. 

2 of township agencies incomplete. Vast majority of our law enforcement powers conferred on the county level and above units, the township government law enforcement would not be able to follow, so the body will inevitably incomplete from the beginning of this century, township law enforcement charges Most stations have the right to withdraw gradually county authorities, but the actual work of the township government, but in the case of lack of enforcement powers to assume more and more of the ultra vires law enforcement tasks. 

3 township fiscal nominal. Township finances without their own local taxes and tax sharing, all sources of funding for the county financial allocations in previous years for the completion of tasks lack idling higher taxes, buying tax, and the formation of a hidden deficit spending is not small, insufficient financial resources, not to mention the provision of public services and performance of public management functions. example in my village where the township, the township cadres, 73 people, 22 were part of the fiscal full wages, only to the county finance 51 per month 540 yuan subsidy, meager public funds, but the village almost every day all visitors are required to reception, also raised three car indeed very difficult. 

4 undisciplined individual work style of cadres of township. Township cadres full financial expenses also more than one thousand yuan monthly salary, less the difference between the wages earned some township cadres themselves or allow relatives to find work. Township cadres to seek livelihoods in another part of the special fund had contact with agriculture, coupled with the county and township authorities are sometimes unavoidable because of lack of funds earmarked in agriculture in the article do, it makes part of the agriculture in the use of funds for both companies to find qualified units or, centralized procurement tender worth mentioning, only increase the cost and reduce the quality. 

Based on the above four reasons, coupled with the higher requirements of the township too unrealistic and numerous "one-vote veto" hanging sword, making the individual township leaders to take the practice of bullying on the pressure, with the township cadres then called the play "firewall" role in this side "firewall", the lower the real situation is less than or superior understanding of open eyes closed eyes, the higher the spirit and requirements are difficult to carry out that decision. barrier "firewall" cadres work by writing, numbers guesses, compiled by experience, honor by blowing, the harm can be described as big Yan. 

Besides Problems Of Village-Level Organizations:
1 village cadres are not properly protected. Village cadres subsidies did not rise much and basic channels, when the cadres steward will inevitably offend people, offend people stir up trouble, township generally could not hold it back, especially petition is to offend people to the city, county, and if it is not a matter of principle, the village cadres generally "sit wax" in office offended many people, regardless of superiors after stepping down, the village is being criticized, so part of the village cadres, it is not reasonable and necessary go steward. 

2 village money work. Implementation of contract responsibility system in rural areas, the vast majority of the village collective property has long been sold try splitting the original village enterprises or closed down or sold to individuals, their eyes a few years ago the village the villagers mainly work aside funds received State "tax reform" Cancel village set-aside, the set-aside into agricultural attached, because they no longer use the village cadres to collect the money, and the village received on township finance it, the "village fiscal township tube." After the abolition of agricultural tax, agricultural tax plus stay in the township and village level becomes higher financial transfer payments to this part of the money in addition to the village cadres individual subsidies are partially trapped towns, most of the village cadres did not even know there was such a sum should Use of funds belonging to the village and some even want to do at the village's practical good road digging, because the money can not be implemented, 
3. The village did not work autonomy earmarked superiors down a lot to farmers, "thing" for supporting self-financing "of a proposed" After receipt of money from the peasants give the money handed township or county supervisor account designated by the department, by the township or county authorities unified management and use, as to how to use the village cadres and farmers rarely able to participate in the use of funds and have to bear the main responsibility for reimbursement. and often pay a lot of money to do something bad , tired finish the long march by the curse, with twice the power and a half, making some village cadres have nothing positive to work, 
4 part of the village cadres have no energy to steward. Village cadres are generally contracted land, and some or engage in farming, or the kind of greenhouses, or open canteen, their own natural no effort to live too much work to take care of the village. These years and Xing When entrepreneurs concurrently village cadres, the idea is to let the lead the masses to get rich together, and in fact some of these entrepreneurs when the village cadres nothing more than to their own county and township leaders mixed Lianshu, in order to facilitate the development of their own business, energy is not in the village . 

Since these four reasons, some village-level organizations play their role really well, some villages it paralyzed too. 
Township governments and village-level organizations current situation is caused by various factors, of course, not entirely to blame the village cadres, but the current situation is indeed to become farmers on social discontent and some local party cadre deterioration of the important reasons, should cause us great concern and efforts to solve this reason I propose the following:
First, we must strengthen the party correctly grasp the scientific connotation of Rural Work Leading the Party's leadership of the party for rural use of their high political authority rationing of social resources, and guide farmers to achieve political goals and social development process, while the party's rural pole high political authority from the farmers' trust and support is given to farmers from this point of understanding, I believe that strengthening the Party's leadership over rural work is essentially a party peasants constantly learn wisdom, and gathering strength, and thus do not realize adapt to the development of rural productivity production relations and the superstructure for change and improvement, and promote the development of productive forces, the process to achieve the aspirations of farmers whose purpose is to wholeheartedly follow services for farmers whose basic approach, one is to promote and mobilize farmers, namely, by propagating and implementing the the party's line, principles and policies, farmers cultivate the spirit of collectivism and hard work, promote new socialist culture to unite the rural social forces, and the other one is to believe and rely on the farmers, namely the masters up through farmer responsible for monitoring the party and the government and its work personnel to ensure the right of the people. "must adhere to the dominant position of the people" (quoted from eighteen major report is the fundamental idea of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the bottom line and life, but also out of Huangyanpei called "History Periodic Law" forever Celebrex Party and the socialist countries youthful political magic. 

Second, the government should clarify the boundaries of the rural social management on the one hand to improve the grass-roots mass self-government mechanisms and implement eighteen report of the "governance in urban and rural communities, grassroots public affairs and public welfare undertakings in implementation of the masses self-management, self-service , self-education, self-monitoring is the people directly exercise their democratic rights according to the law an important way to improve the grass-roots party leadership vibrant grass-roots mass self-government mechanisms to expand the orderly participation, and promote information disclosure, strengthen consultation procedure, and strengthen 
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