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浅谈外贸英语教学的误区及对策论文|经济学论文中英文模板|英语助手官网

发表时间:2015-11-3  来源:www.yingyuzhushou.com  作者:yingyuzhushou.com  浏览次数:1702  
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论文导读:传统的外贸英语教学模式中存在着许多弊端,这些弊端直接影响了外贸英语教学的质量。
关键词:外贸英语教学

  摘要:传统的外贸英语教学模式中存在着许多弊端,这些弊端直接影响了外贸英语教学的质量。本文从外贸英语教学的目标分析入手,进而辨别出传统教学法与当代外贸英语人才需求的不适应因素,例如课程设计的不合理、实践环节的缺失等。本文最后则是通过思索教学教学方法的改进,试图探索一条外贸英语教学改革的可行之路。
  随着我国对外开放的不断深化,对外交流活动特别是对外贸易交往与日俱增,外贸英语作为对外贸易活动中的应用性语言在国际商务沟通中发挥着越来越重要的作用。为适应国际商务交流的需要,我国进行外贸英语教学已有二十年的歷史,但外贸英语人才相对于市场的旺盛需求缺口仍然很大。反思我国外贸英语教学虽然培养了大批的外贸英语人才,但我们也应清醒地认识到,在教学中一直存在着几处“硬伤”,这些“硬伤”直接影响了外贸英语人才的培养质量,成为我们目前外贸英语教学改革中必须正视和亟待解决的问题,对于从事外贸英语教学的教育者来说,外贸英语教学模式的探索和改革仍是一个既重要、又新鲜的课题。
  纵观我国二十年的外贸英语教学,把传统的英语教学和相关商务知识简单相加的模式,一直延续至今。近年来,许多学者和外贸英语教学人员已经开始认识到传统教学模式的弊端,笔者也认为对传统外贸英语教学模式进行反思,是进行外贸英语教学改革的必经阶段。
  一、 培养目标不明确。
  传统英语教学所要实现的培养目标是让英语学习者把英语作为一种语言工具,从听、说、读、写四个方面进行全面把握;而外贸英语专业所要培养的则是利用商务知识从事跨国商务活动的专业性人才,也就是说,外贸英语专业设置的原则目标是让学习者利用英语从事国际商务活动。这一原则目标本身没有什麽问题,但由于过于宽泛,缺乏可操作性,因此在外贸英语教学实践中,以传统的英语教学模式讲授外贸英语单词和课文,把外贸英语课上成了精读课的现象仍普遍存在;以这种方式培养出来的学生,不过是比传统的英语学习者多掌握了几个专业单词,在商务活动和英语的语言应用中均无优势可言。这种现象正是专业培养目标不明确的必然结果。作为外贸英语专业所要培养的人才,笔者认为首先应该具备如下素质:
  1.用英语熟练进行商务沟通的能力。这要求学习者能用英语进行熟练商务沟通,在了解商务对象的商务文化背景的基础上,熟悉一般商务礼仪,能用英语进行深入的国际贸易业务沟通与交流。
  2.系统的对外贸易知识体系。外贸英语专业的学生,应在英语教学环境中全面学习国际贸易相关知识。由于外贸英语专业所培养的是以英语为辅进行国际商务活动的人才,因此,学习者应在语言学习的基础上全面深入学习国际贸易知识,并能对相关的知识体系在英语环境中加以灵活运用。
  二、相关课程设置不合理。
  在培养目标的论述中,我们提到外贸英语专业的学生应该系统了解对外贸易知识,但在目前的外贸英语教学中,我们的课程设置仍带有随意性和局限性,以致偏离外贸英语专业的培养目标和课堂教学的重心。造成这种现象的原因,有传统英语教学模式的桎梏,也有专业培养目标不明确和师资建设方面的原因,更重要的是外贸英语专业课程设置不合理。外贸英语课程的设置应该和其他专业的课程设置一样,遵循科学性、合理性、灵活性的原则。科学性原则要求课程设置符合专业培养目标的需求,合理性原则要求课程设置充分考虑学生的接受限度和授课内容的要求,灵活性原则要求学生有充足的自选课程。
  具体到外贸英语专业,课程设置应该分必修语言课部分、必修商务相关专业课部分和学生自选课程部分。必修语言课部分应包括商务英语阅读、外贸英语翻译、外贸写作等註重语言能力培养的课程;必修商务相关专业课部分应包括国际贸易实务、国际金融、国际商法等课程,提供与国际贸易环节密不可分的专业知识;学生自选课程部分应包括外贸函电、各类外贸单据制作、外贸合同、商务文化及商务谈判的相关课程。只有全面、科学、合理地设置课程,才能充分展现外贸英语教学的特色,并使之成为一个完整的教学体系。
  三、 实践环节的缺失
  外贸英语专业具有很强的实践性特点,但在传统的外贸英语教学中,这一点往往为我们所忽视,以致造成实践环节的缺失,所培养出的学生在进入社会后不能迅速应对工作,仍需很长时间的学习才能够进行国际业务的实际操作,这些常常引发用人单位的不满;因此加强教学的实践环节,是外贸英语教学改革的必要举措。笔者认为应着重做好如下工作:
  1. 软实践。所谓软实践,就是通过虚拟场景让学生在教学过程中得到商务实践效果的实践方法。目前具体体现为软件实践和商务场景模拟实践。软件实践主要是让学生通过商务实践软件,完成软件所设定的各项商务任务,从而达到用实践商务活动的目的。这类软件国内外均已开发成功,实践效果相当不错,特别是在国际贸易、国际金融交易流程等方面,十分逼真。商务场景模拟实践包括课堂场景模拟(以教师为组织者,学生为参与者,设定具体的商务活动,让学生运用英语完成模拟商务活动中的各项任务)和专业实验室(设计逼真的商务交易场所,预存各种商务任务,让学生在实验室的逼真环境中去完成)。
  2. 硬实践。有条件的学校,应尽量让学生到企业、公司、海关等部门和单位从事真正的实践活动。一方面学校要广泛联系,为学生争取更多的实践机会,特别要考虑建立一些学生实践基地;另一方面鼓励学生自主走出去联系实践单位。近年来,企业、单位出于对商业秘密的考虑,一般不太愿接受短期实习的学生,学校应在实习机制上多动脑筋,尽量为学生争取实践的机会。另外,也可以通过聘请公司和企业的资深工作者为学生开实践流程讲座,甚至可以考虑聘请他们为兼职教师为学生上实践课。
  3. 实验课的设置。无论是硬实践还是软实践,单纯的让老师在理论课中挤占课时是不现实的,效果肯定也不会理想。外贸英语专业课程设置时因该考虑设置相当的实验课,让学生把实践作为一门课程去完成。目前,一些高校虽然已经设置了实验课,但往往流于形式,虚设课时,这种现象若不改变,必将阻碍外贸英语教学改革的进行。
四、教师队伍力量薄弱。
  从以上的分析可以得出要完成外贸英语教学,必须建设一支高素质的復合型教师队伍。笔者认为,外贸英语专业的教师,至少应该具备如下素质:
  1、英语授课能力。目前,在外贸英语专业设置的课程中,真正实现全英授课的课程为数不多。在相关专业课程的授课过程中,有些学校宣称实现了双语授课,但实际上教师只是在汉语讲授的过程中对个别外贸术语进行英语表述而已。专业教师自身需要加强专业和语言两方面的能力修养,在授课过程中真正实现英语授课,让学生真正在英语环境中学习专业知识,只有这样才能让他们在未来的商务活动中应对有余。
  2、系统的外贸知识。外贸知识作为一个完整的知识体系,与法律、经济等学科之间紧密相关,因此教授外贸英语专业课程的教师需在总体上把握经贸知识体系,在对外贸英语熟练把握的基础上,并对相关的国际贸易、国际法等知识系统进行全面的学习,避免将外贸英语课程上成英语精读课程,在出现相关的外贸概念和知识的情况下能以英语进行准确表述。
  3、商务实践能力。有人曾说,哈佛的工商课教授自己从不从事经济活动,课依然讲的非常好。笔者对这种说法尚未证实,但即使如此,前提也应该是这些教授要麽是调研的高手,要麽就是在从事教学前曾是商务活动者。在我国外贸英语教学实践环节还相当薄弱,特别是没有权威教材指导教学中的商务实践,在这种情况下外贸英语专业教师应通过各种方式深入商务实践,培养自我商务实践能力以便能够在教学过程中对学生进行正确引导。
  当然我们也认识到目前要建设一支高素质的教师队伍,困难还很大,但不能以此作为拖延教学改革的借口,我们应该积极探索一些过渡的解决办法。
  对于师资不足的现象,莱阳农学院采取院系之间教师共享是一种值得借鉴的做法:英语系的外贸英语教师给国际贸易专业的学生进行商务英语教学,而国际贸易专业的教师则为外贸英语专业的学生开设各类商务专业课程。在教师的引进上,我们要摒弃传统的本、研专业相同的旧思想。现代社会,无论是在实践还是科研中,復合型人才已渐成新宠,而相当多的高校在人才引进时,却将本、研专业相同作为限入的门槛,这对于教学改革无疑是一种羁绊。对于復合型专业,引进专业復合型教师,是提高师资力量的捷径。最后,还要加强教师的再教育。对教师的再教育主要包括理论和实践两部分。理论培训主要是对培养现有教师的復合型能力,实践培训则主要是让教师参与商务实践,增加商务实践知识。
  五、考试制度改革滞后
  外贸英语专业开设二十年来,我们一直延续传统主流专业的考核方法—语言知识点的考核、口语测试等等。这样的考试制度对于外贸英语专业这样的实践性、復合性的专业来说,逐渐成为人才培养的桎梏。因为我们要培养的是用英语在商务活动中进行工作的人才,传统的考试模式所产生的导向把学生的学习方法、学习目标粗暴的定位在了简单的重復记忆上。这样的导向下培养出的学生,在如此竞争激烈的市场环境中,很难适应对外商务实践的需要。因此,思考外贸英语考试改革必然是外贸英语教学改革的必要一环。
  1、加强实践环节的考核。我们要采取实践考核的方式,引导学生重视实践,积极参与实践,实现学习目的的根本转变。实践考核主要分为软实践考核和硬实践考核两方面。软实践考核就是根据学生课堂模拟和实验室任务的完成情况给与评分。硬实践考核就是根据学生参与社会实践的情况给与评分。虽然这样的考核方式具有主观性强,分值和公正性不好把握的缺点,但只要能设计出合理的配套考核制度,将对学生的学习方式和效果产生革命性的影响。
  2、全英语试卷考核。适应双语教学的需要,外贸英语专业的各门课程都应该用英语出卷,用英语答卷,以此激励学生应用语言的热情。
  3、英语课程论文的考核。外贸英语专业的一些课程,可以采取撰写英语课程论文的方式,提高学生的英语与商务知识的综合应用能力。

  总之,外贸英语教学改革,只有遵循它的本质规律,以它的培养目标为导向,才能培养出适应市场经济需要的外贸英语人才。

译文:

Paper Introduction: The traditional English teaching mode of foreign trade, there are many disadvantages, these drawbacks directly affect the quality of foreign trade English. 
Keywords: Business English Teaching 

Abstract: The traditional English teaching mode of foreign trade, there are many disadvantages, these drawbacks directly affect the quality of foreign trade English. In this paper, the analysis of the foreign trade English teaching from the target, and then identify the traditional teaching of English and Modern Foreign demand for talent suited to factors such as curriculum design is unreasonable, the lack of practice and other aspects. Finally, it is thinking of teaching by improving teaching methods in an attempt to explore a feasible way trade English teaching reform. 
With the deepening of China's opening up, foreign exchange activities, especially the growing foreign trade exchanges, foreign trade activities of English as a Foreign Language Application is playing an increasingly important role in international business communication. To meet the needs of international business communication, our country's foreign trade English teaching has 20 years of history, but with respect to foreign trade English talent gap in the market demand remains high. Reflection on Business English teaching English language skills though training a large number of foreign trade, but we should clearly recognize that there has been in the teaching of several 'flawed', the 'flawed' a direct impact on the quality of talent cultivation of foreign trade English become our current Business English teaching reform must face and problems to be solved, for the teaching of English education in foreign trade are concerned, to explore and reform trade English Teaching remains a both important, and fresh topics. 
Throughout China's foreign English teaching two decades, the traditional English teaching and business-related knowledge simple sum pattern continues today. In recent years, many scholars and Business English teaching staff have begun to recognize the shortcomings of the traditional teaching model, we also believe that the traditional English teaching model to reflect foreign trade is carried out a necessary step in Business English Teaching. 
First, the training objectives are not clear. 
Traditional English teaching training objectives to be achieved is to allow English learners of English as a language tool, listening, speaking, reading and writing four aspects of a comprehensive grasp; and foreign trade English majors to be cultured is the use of business knowledge in Chinese professional talent business activities, that is, the principle objective is to set up foreign trade English major learners use English in international business activities. The principle objective in itself is no problem, but because of too broad, lack of operability, and therefore foreign trade English teaching practice, the traditional mode of teaching English teaching Business English words and texts, to become a Business English Intensive Reading Course It is still very common; students trained in this manner, but is more than the traditional English learners to master a few specialized words, in business and English language application no advantage at all. This phenomenon is the professional training goal is not clear the inevitable result. English as a foreign trade professional to be trained people, I think first of all should have the following qualities: 
1. English proficiency in business communication ability. This requires students to be proficient in English can be used for business communication, on the basis of understanding the business object business and cultural background of the familiar general business etiquette, use English in-depth communication and exchange in international trade business. 
2. Foreign Trade and knowledge of the system. Business English majors, should a comprehensive study of international trade-related knowledge in English teaching environment. Since foreign trade English major is English, supplemented by training for international business people, and therefore, the learners should be comprehensive in-depth study of knowledge of international trade on the basis of language learning, and to the relevant body of knowledge to be flexible in an English environment use. 
Second, the relevant curriculum unreasonable. 
In the discussion of training objectives, we mentioned foreign trade English majors should be systematic understanding of foreign trade knowledge, but in the current English teaching in foreign trade, our curriculum remains haphazard and limitations that deviate from the English professional foreign trade Training objectives and focus of classroom teaching. The reasons for this phenomenon, there are shackles of traditional English teaching mode, there are no clear reasons for the professional training objectives and teaching building, more importantly, foreign trade English Curriculum unreasonable. Settings Business English courses and other professional courses should be set up as follow scientific rationality, the principle of flexibility. Scientific principles require professional training curriculum in line with the needs of the target, the principle of rationality requires students to take full account of the curriculum and teaching content to accept the limits of the requirements of the principle of flexibility require students to have plenty of optional courses. 
Specific to Business English major, curriculum should be divided into compulsory language courses part, compulsory part of curriculum and student choice part of business-related courses. Compulsory language courses section should include Business English reading, foreign trade English translation, writing and other foreign trade focusing on language training courses; compulsory courses in the Business section should include international trade practice, international finance, international business law courses, inextricably linked with the international trade links expertise; optional portion of the course students should include Business Correspondence, making all kinds of foreign trade documents, foreign trade contracts related courses, business culture and business negotiations. Only a comprehensive, scientific and rational curriculum, in order to fully demonstrate the characteristics of Business English teaching, and make it a complete teaching system. 
Third, the lack of practical aspects of foreign trade English majors have a strong practical features, but in the traditional English teaching in foreign trade, which is often neglected by us, resulting in lack of practical aspects of the culture of the students into the community can not respond quickly to work, still need a long time to learn to be able to perform the actual operation of international business, which often lead to dissatisfaction of the employer; therefore strengthen the teaching of practical aspects, it is necessary to measure Business English Teaching. I think we should focus our attention on the following work: 
1. Soft practices. The so-called soft practice is for students to get through the virtual scene Practices Effective business practices in the teaching process. Currently embodied in software practice and business scene simulation practice. Software is designed to allow students to practice by business practices software, software to complete the tasks set by the business, so as to achieve the practice of business activities with the goal. This type of software development at home and abroad have been successful, practical effect is quite good, especially in international trade, financial transactions and other aspects of the process, very realistic. Business scenario simulation practices include classroom scene simulation (teacher-organizer, student participants, set specific business activities for students to use English to complete the simulation business activities in the various tasks) and specialized laboratories (design realistic business market place, stored a variety of business tasks, so that students in the laboratory a realistic environment to complete). 
2. Hard practice. Qualified schools should try to make the students to enterprises, companies, customs and other departments and units engaged in real practice. On the one hand schools should widely contacts for students to strive for more opportunities to practice, in particular, to consider establishing some students practice base; on the other hand to encourage students to go out with practice autonomous units. In recent years, enterprises and units for consideration of trade secrets, are generally less willing to accept short-term internships for students, the school should be more on the brains internship mechanism, the opportunity to practice as much as possible for students to fight. It is also possible for students to practice processes open lecture by hiring companies and enterprises of senior workers, they can even consider hiring a part-time teacher-student practical classes. 
3. Experiment Course settings. Whether hard or soft practice practice, simply let the teacher in the theoretical lessons in class squeeze is unrealistic, the effect certainly not ideal. Consider setting because of the foreign trade English Curriculum considerable experimental course, allow students to practice as a course to complete. At present, although some universities have set up experimental courses, but often a mere formality, a dummy class, if not change this phenomenon, will hinder the progress of foreign trade English Teaching. 
Fourth, teachers weak. 
From the above analysis can be drawn to complete the Business English teaching, we must build a high-quality composite teachers. I believe that foreign trade professional English teachers, should at least have the following qualities: 
1, in English ability. At present, foreign trade English courses in professional settings, truly one of the few courses taught in the UK. In the teaching process-related courses in some schools claimed to have achieved a bilingual teaching, but in fact the teachers taught only in Chinese foreign trade during the course of individual expressions terminology English only. Professional teachers themselves need to strengthen the capacity of professional and language training both in the teaching process truly taught in English, so that students really learn professional knowledge in an English environment, the only way to get them to deal with more than the future business activities. 
2, knowledge of foreign trade system. Foreign knowledge as a complete system of knowledge, between closely related legal, economic and other disciplines and, therefore, Professor of Business English courses teachers need to grasp knowledge and trade in general, on the basis of foreign trade English proficient grasp on, and related international trade, international law and other knowledge systems to conduct a comprehensive study, to avoid on a Business English course Intensive English course, in the event of trade-related concepts and knowledge can be an accurate statement in English. 
3, business practices capacity. Someone once said, a Harvard professor of business and industry section he never engaged in economic activity, is still in a very good lesson. The author of this statement has not been confirmed, but even so, it should be provided either master research professors, or is engaged in business activities by teaching ago. English Teaching in China's foreign trade links are still quite weak, especially no authoritative teaching materials to guide business practices, in which case the foreign trade English major teachers should be in-depth business practices through a variety of ways to cultivate the ability to be able to self-business practices in teaching the process of proper guidance for students. 
Of course, we also recognize that now want to build a high-quality teachers, difficulties still very great, but it can not serve as an excuse to delay the teaching reform, we should actively explore some transitional solutions. 
For the teacher shortage, Laiyang Agricultural College teachers take between departments sharing is a practice worth learning: Foreign English Teacher English department for international trade professional teaching business English students, teachers and international trade, compared with foreign trade English majors offer all kinds of business courses. On the introduction of the teachers, we have to abandon the traditional book, the same old ideas of professional research. In modern society, whether in practice or scientific research, compound talents gradually SANDOVAL, and a considerable number of colleges and universities during the introduction of talent, puts this, research into the professional the same as the threshold limit, this is a reform for teaching fetters. For complex professional, the introduction of professional teachers complex is to improve teachers shortcut. Finally, we need to strengthen the re-education of teachers. Reeducation of teachers includes both theoretical and practical parts. Theoretical training is mainly to train existing teachers composite capability, hands-on training is mainly to allow teachers to participate in business practices, increased knowledge of business practices. 
Fifth, the reform of the examination system lags Business English Majors in two decades, we have been a continuation of the traditional mainstream professional assessment methods - assessment of knowledge of the language, oral test and so on. Such examination system Practical English for foreign trade, such complex and professional, it has gradually become the shackles talents. Because we want to cultivate is to use English to work in business activities in the talent, the traditional mode of examination-oriented generated the students learning, learning objectives brutal positioned on the simple repetition memory. Such a guide to train the next student, in such a competitive market environment, it is difficult to meet the needs of foreign business practices. Therefore, thinking Business English exam reform inevitable English teaching reform of foreign trade essential part. 
1, to strengthen the practical aspects of the assessment. We must take practical assessment approach, emphasizing the practical guide students to actively participate in practice, to achieve a fundamental change in the educational purpose. Practical assessment is divided into soft and hard practice practical assessment examination in two ways. Soft practical assessment is based on the completion of the students' classroom simulations and laboratory tasks given score. Hard practical assessment is based on the situation of the students to participate in social practice to give ratings. Although such a strong subjective assessment methods, scores and impartiality good grasp of shortcomings, but as long as a reasonable package design evaluation system will have a revolutionary impact on students' learning styles and effects. 
2, all English papers assessment. To meet the needs of bilingual education, foreign trade English majors various courses of the volume should be in English, with the English paper, in order to encourage students to apply the language of passion. 
3, English coursework assessment. Business English professional courses that can be taken to write English coursework way to improve students' English proficiency and comprehensive business knowledge. 
In short, foreign English teaching reform, only to follow the laws of its nature, with its goal-oriented culture in order to develop a market economy needs to adapt to foreign trade English talent. 

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