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浅谈电子信息在工程造价管理中的应用|行业论文中英文模板|学术论文校正润色服务

发表时间:2015-11-6  来源:www.yingyuzhushou.com  作者:yingyuzhushou.com  浏览次数:1608  
字体大小: 【小】 【中】 【大】
论文关键词:电子信息 工程造价管理 应用;现状 前景
  论文摘要:本文描述了电子信息在工程造价管理领域的应用、特点、现状及分析,重点提出了现阶段我国信息技术在工程造价管理中的前景与展望。
  以往,国内媒体对信息化的报道多以微观组织的应用为主体,而一个行业的信息化应用水平.信息化对于行业的作用力如何,却是一个少有涉及的话题。从《IT经理世界》创刊以来,就一直没有停止过对中国信息化的关註.对CIO群体的关註,8年多来,积累了大量的个案。2002年以来,《IT经理世界》和IDC中国每年都会进行“中国优秀CIO”评选,4年下来共选出162位优秀CIO, 他们所在的组织几乎都是不同行业信息化的最佳实践者。通过对他们所在组织的分析,我们发现制造型企业数量最多(97 家),占总数的59.88%;其次是金融企业24家,占14.81%; 交通行业的企业17家,占10.49%;零售企业5家,占3.0二十一世纪作为信息化的时代,计算机与信息技术的使用得到了快速的普及和发展。以信息技术作为基础的信息管理,已成为企业等现代化管理的一种先进的方式。最近几年关于工程造价方面的软件和网络技术研究的成果,Internet技术的出现更是大大地提高了人们获取信息的效率及信息资源的利用率,实现了全球信息资源的共享。IT在工程造价领域的应用越来越广泛。 
  一、电子信息技术在工程造价管理领域的应用:
  目前造价行业信息技术的运用有几个部分:以Internet/Intranet为内部、外部和内外通讯的网络平臺,通过实施办公自动化和运用管理信息系统加强管理,提高办公效率;采用工程量计算软件、钢筋软件进行工程量和钢筋用量的计算,运用套价软件编制工程预决算;利用数据库技术建立指标收集和分析系统,用于已完工程的积累;利用信息网发布和获取信息,用于工程预决算的编制和造价管理。 
  二、工程造价管理在电子信息化时代的特点:
  社会的不断进步和发展,工程项目的规模扩大,工程造价管理的数据处理量也越来越多。由此向工程造价管理工作提出了挑战,传统的被动式管理已无法满足日趋復杂的工程项目的需要;工程造价信息对工程造价的确定和控制影响越来越大。要想做好相应的管理和控制必然需要大量的信息作基础,也只有在充分掌握和详尽分析相关信息的前提下,实现工程造价的动态控制才有可能;工程造价管理与有关的各方面政府主管部门之间的信息传递日趋增加,这也即意味着在管理上需作出相应的信息化调整。
三、电子信息在工程造价管理中的现状及分析:
  随着信息技术的快速发展和其在建筑行业的推广发展,我国信息技术在工程造价管理方面的应用,主要表现为人们在制定定额、编制标底、投标报价、造价控制等方面已经摆脱了手工劳动,实现了电子化、信息化管理,且各类工程造价管理相关软件的广泛应用就是最好的说明。进入21世纪,互联网技术不断发展,我国出现了大批为工程造价及相关管理活动提供信息和服务的网站。这些网站不同程度的提供了政策法规、理论文章,有些涉及项目信息、造价指标和材料价格信息等,它们为进一步建设全国规模的工程造价管理专项系统进行了有益的尝试,并取得了一些经验。但从另一个方面来讲,这些网站没有统一的规划,有些提供的信息不够严谨、内容更新不及时,从专业角度来讲,还属于比较浅层的信息服务,难以满足深层次造价管理工作的需要。我国造价管理体制是在计划经济模式下、以定额管理为基础建立起来的,而且信息技术起步较晚,工程造价管理领域完全进入市场经济运行体制较迟,这样在一定程度上影响了信息技术在工程造价管理中的应用。一方面静态的管理难以应对变动的市场,主要表现:静态定额;解决方案和途径的缺乏。另一方面滞后的数据收集与管理阻碍着工程造价动态控制进程,收集的数据得不到充分的利用,数据缺乏通用性。目前,我国正积极推行工程量清单计价方式,在此模式下,如何运用先进的信息技术进行工程造价管理,正处在探索与发展阶段,从长远来看,信息技术应用将会推动造价管理信息化的快速发展。
  四、电子信息技术在工程造价管理中的前景与展望: 
   (一)、工程预(决)算软件:目前套价软件使用已经很普遍,但功能应从单一的套价、出预算书向多方扩展,一是向上扩展,增加工程管理功能,可以同时处理多个工程和一个工程的各阶段数据,贯穿从估算、概算、预算、阶段结算和竣工决算的全过程的造价管理;二是功能进一步细化,加强对计算结果的分析和细度的调整,以方便投标单位的造价调整和控制;三是与互联网络的连接,将预算软件所需的材料价格等数据通过互联网提供给用户,方便材料价格数据的维护,提高工作效率;四是对已完工程资料的积累方面功能的加强。(二)、工程量、钢筋用量计算软件:此类软件,用于协助从施工图计算工程量,现在使用较广的软件一般采用作图法,要求工作人员在识图的基础上用该软件重新输入图纸中各种构件及其尺寸,然后由系统自动计算工程量,得到工程量清单,这种作法计算出的工程量比较精确,但必须重新输入图纸工作量仍然很大。另一种方法是直接将工程图纸扫描形成光栅文件,由软件处理矢量化后,抽取特征,用模式识别的技术识别构件类型和其几何参数,进而计算工程量;或由设计院生成的施工图CAD文件在CAD环境下作模式识别。这种方法要求在图纸的特征表示和建模上作大量的研究工作,抽取各种构件的特征参数,采用人工智能技术,为了最终能代替人完成识图的过程,这是较有前途的方法,但根据汉字识别技术的发展过程,必须对图纸的特征进行深入的分析研究,该软件要能真正代替人识图还有一段路要走。第三种方法是在建筑设计所使用的CAD软件中直接加入构件特征参数的属性,定义各种构件对象,在进行结构和建筑设计时使用这些对象设计建筑物,而不用直接使用线条作图。这种方法使设计的结果中包括丰富的构件和参数而不是线条,经过一个语法分析器就能分离出所有构件和参数,避免了模式识别这个难关。因此,在人工智能的应用还未深入该领域时仍必须通过交互的过程来填补软件在智能上的不足。(三)、Internet在工程造价管理中的应用设想:工程造价的管理与互联网整合无疑将给工程造价的管理带来质的飞跃和发展。传统的计划式的管理模式将被变动的市场的新型模式所取代,实现工程造价的协同控制也将成为必然。相应网站的建立与壮大。1.工程造价信息网:工程造价信息具体指的是与工程造价相关的法律、法规、价格调整文件、造价报表、指标等影响工程造价的信息。建立起统一的造价信息网,不但有利于使用者查询、分析和决策,更有利于国家主管部门实行统一的管理与协调,使得工程造价管理统一化、规模化、有序化。2.材料价格信息网:材料价格的变动将直接影响着工程的预算和决算,对工程造价的动态控制起着决定性的作用。信息网、软件间的相互整合。1.信息网与造价软件:当前市场上的造价软件中所需的材料价格大多采用人工录入价格的形式。有的是整体的引入,有的则是一个个输入,大大影响了快速报价的进程,同时也不能及时与市场接轨,无形间削弱了企业的竞争力。信息网与造价软件的整合将消除这一矛盾,在造价软件中直接点击相应引入按钮,输入要引入信息所在地点的详细资料,即可随时得到相应材料的价格,若所引入的材料价格有所变动,软件中的预警系统将自动提醒操作者更新价格。这不但缩短了录入材料价格的时间,还达到了随时更新的目的。2.信息网与进度控制软件:工程控制的一个重要目标是成本控制,而成本控制在无形中又影响着进度和质量的控制,同时市场的变动将直接影响着投入的成本和资源的分配,而这必将导致工程进度的变动。所以,工程项目现场的进度控制也应通过成本控制时刻反映着市场的变动。信息网与进度控制的整合也将成为必然。 
  通过加强信息技术在工程造价管理中的应用力度,坚持工程量清单计价模式,统一全面管理认识、统一信息技术标准,优化整合工程造价管理软件,设计并推行人性化网络造价管理软件,建立健全工程造价管理信息系统,最终通过市场价格机制的运行,形成统一、协调、有序的工程造价全过程综合管理体系,达到合理使用投资、有效控制工程造价、取得最佳投资效益的目的。 
译文:
Paper Keywords: Electronics and Information Engineering Cost Management application, present prospects
Abstract: This paper describes the electronic information in the field of project cost management application, characteristics, status and analysis, focusing raised stage of China's information technology in project cost management prospects and prospects.
In the past, domestic media reported on information technology and more to the application of the microstructure of the main body, and an industry, information technology application level. Information how the force for the industry, but it is a few topics covered from "IT managers in the world >> since the founding, it has not stopped the Chinese information technology concerns. CIO focus groups for more than eight years, has accumulated a large number of cases since .2002, < > And IDC China conduct an annual "China Excellent CIO" award, four were selected for 162 years down the outstanding CIO, their organizations are almost always different information technology industry's best practitioners. Through the analysis of their organizations, We found that the largest number of manufacturing companies (97), accounting for 59.88%; followed by 24 financial enterprises, accounting for 14.81%; transportation industry enterprises 17, accounting for 10.49%; retail enterprises 5 , accounting for 3.0 twenty-first century as the era of information technology, computer and information technologies has been rapid popularization and development of information technology as a basis for information management, and other modern management has become an advanced way In recent years about the project cost aspects of the software and network technology research achievements, Internet technologies emerge is greatly improved access to information and information resources utilization efficiency, to achieve a global information resource sharing. IT in engineering cost fields more and more widely. 

An electronic information technology in the field of project cost management application:
Currently the cost of the use of information technology industry has several parts: the Internet / Intranet is an internal, external, and internal and external communications network platform, through the implementation of office automation and the use of management information systems to strengthen management, improve office efficiency, the use of engineering calculation software, reinforced software engineering and steel consumption calculations, set the price of software development using engineering fields, the use of database technology to establish metrics collection and analysis system for the accumulation of work already done, the use of information publishing and access to information networks for engineering fields preparation and cost management. 

Second, the project cost management in the electronic information age is characterized by:
Social progress and development, to expand the scale of the project, project cost management is also increasing the amount of data processing, whereby the management of the project cost has challenged the traditional passive management has been unable to meet the increasingly complex projects needs, the project cost information on the identification and control of project cost increasing influence. want to make the appropriate management and control will inevitably need a lot of information as a basis, and only in the full grasp of relevant information and a detailed analysis of the premise, to achieve dynamic control of project cost possible, project cost management and related government departments in all aspects of the transmission of information between the increasing, this also means that in the management of information technology to be adjusted accordingly.

Third, the electronic information in project cost management and analysis of the current situation:
With the rapid development of information technology and its use in the construction industry to promote the development of China's information technology in the project cost management application, mainly for people in developing quota, preparing pre-tender, tender offer, cost control and other aspects have to get rid of the manual labor to achieve the electronic, information management, and the various types of project cost management software widely used is the best description. enter the 21st century, the continuous development of Internet technology, China is seeing a large number of project cost management activities and related information and service's website. these sites provide different levels of policies and regulations, theoretical articles, some of which project information, price information and materials cost index, etc., which is to further build a national scale project cost management of special system has been useful to try and obtain some experience, but from the other side, these sites do not unified planning, some of the information provided is not precise enough, not timely content updates, from a professional point of view, but also a relatively shallow information services, it is difficult to meet the deep-seated cost management needs. our cost management system under the planned economy, in order to set up the basis of quota management, and information technology started late, project cost management system is fully operational late in entering the market economy, so to some extent affected the IT in Project Cost Management on the one hand the management of difficult to deal with changes in a static market, mainly: a static scale, solutions and approaches lack the other hand lags hinder data collection and management of project cost dynamic control process, the collected data are not fully utilized, data are lacking versatility. present, China is actively promoting the Bill of Quantities way, in this mode, how to use advanced information technology project cost management, is in exploration and development stage, in the long run, IT Cost Management application will promote the rapid development of information technology.
Fourth, electronic information technology in project cost management in the foreground and Prospect: 
(A), pre-project (summary) operator software: set the price of the software currently used is very common, but the function should set the price of a single, multi-party extensions to the budget book, one scale-up, increased project management capabilities that can handle multiple an engineering and data at all stages of a project throughout from estimates, estimates, budgets, and final account settlement stage of the whole process of cost management, and second feature further refine and strengthen the analysis of the calculation results and fineness adjustments to the cost of bidding units to facilitate adjustment and control, three with the Internet connection, the budget software required material prices and other data available to users via the Internet to facilitate material price data maintenance, improve work efficiency; fourth is to work already done the accumulation of information to enhance functionality. (two), engineering, steel consumption calculation software: This software is used to help calculate quantities from the construction plans, the software now uses a wider mapping method commonly used to require staff knowledge map based on the use of the software to re-enter drawings of various components and their size, and then the system will automatically calculate quantities obtained BOQ, this approach to calculate the amount of work is more accurate, but you must re-enter the drawing workload still great. Another way is to directly form a raster scanned engineering drawings documents processed by software after Vector, selected characteristics, using pattern recognition technology to identify component types and their geometric parameters, thereby calculate quantities; or institute CAD files generated drawings of pattern recognition in the CAD environment behind this method requires the drawing feature representation and modeling to make a lot of research work to extract the characteristic parameters of various components, the use of artificial intelligence techniques, in order to eventually be able to replace the person to complete the process of knowledge map, which is a more promising approach, but according to Chinese character recognition technology development process, which must feature on the drawing-depth analysis, the software must be able to truly replace human knowledge map is still some way to go The third method is to be used in architectural design CAD software feature parameters directly into the member attributes define various component object, during the use of the structure and architecture building design of these objects, and not directly with the line drawing This method makes the results of the design includes a rich component and parameter instead of lines, a parser can be isolated through all elements and parameters, to avoid the difficulties of pattern recognition, so deep in the application of artificial intelligence have not The field is still in the process must be interactive software to fill the lack of intelligence. (three), Internet in project cost management application envisaged: Project Cost Management and Internet integration project cost management will undoubtedly bring about a qualitative leap and development of the traditional planned management style changes in the market will be replaced by a new model to realize the synergies of project cost control will become inevitable. corresponding website creation and growth. 1 Project Cost Information Network: Project Cost information specifically referring to the project cost related laws, regulations, price adjustment documents, cost reports, indicators and other effects of project cost information to establish the cost of a unified information network, not only conducive to use by inquiry, analysis and decision-making, more conducive to national authorities to implement a unified management and coordination, making the project cost management, unified, scale, orderly .2 Material Price Information Network: material price changes will directly affect the project budget and final accounts, the dynamic control of the project cost plays a decisive role. information network, software integration inter .1 Information Network and cost of software: the current cost of software on the market price of the materials required they use manual entry price form. plenty overall introduction, while others are one-input, greatly affected the quick quote process, but also can not be with the market, between the invisible weaken the competitiveness of enterprises. Information Network and cost of software integration will eliminate this contradiction, the cost of software introduced directly click on the appropriate button, enter the information you want to introduce the details of the location, you can always get the corresponding material prices, and if the price of materials has been introduced changes in the software early warning system will automatically alert the operator to update prices which will not only shorten the time of entry materials prices, but also to achieve the purpose of the updated .2 Information Network and Schedule Control Software: engineering controls is an important goal is the cost control, and cost control in virtually also affect the progress and quality control, while changes in the market will have a direct impact on the cost of inputs and resource allocation, and this will inevitably lead to changes in progress, so the progress of the project site Cost control should also be controlled through time reflects changes in the market. information network and schedule control integration will become inevitable. 

By strengthening the information technology in the application of project cost management efforts to uphold the Bill of Quantities, unified understanding of the overall management, unified information technology standards, optimization and integration of project cost management software, network design and implementation of human cost management software, establish and improve project cost management information system, and ultimately through the operation of market mechanisms, the formation of a unified, coordinated, orderly whole process of project cost integrated management system, to achieve the rational use of investment, effective control of the project cost, get the best return on investment purposes. 
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