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当前社会认同的困境与管理论文|行业论文中英文模板|学术论文校正润色服务

发表时间:2015-11-12  来源:www.yingyuzhushou.com  作者:yingyuzhushou.com  浏览次数:1577  
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摘 要:我国经济建设在取得巨大成就的同时,在社会领域也出现了多方面的认同困境。社会认同的流失会导致社会管理难度加大、社会运转成本增加。只有及时介入管理,才能提升和促进社会认同。
  关键词:社会认同; 意识形态;论文代写
  作为描述自身群体特性和群体意识的社会概念,社会认同通过社会地位、成员资格、阶层意识、个人交往等向度来描述个人与社会的关系。如果个人的行为思想与社会规范或社会期待趋于一致、个人对周围社会具有信任和归属感、承认有关权威和权力的合法性,对上述自我特性具备一致性认可,那麽,这个社会就具备了基本的社会认同,反之,则认为是社会认同的流失。作为一个总体性的指标,社会认同是社会安全和稳定及有效运转的润滑剂。我国 30 多年的改革开放使传统的社会认同模式发生了巨大的变化,单位人向社会人迅速转变,生活方式、就业方式、分配方式、思想方式的多样化在促进社会进步的同时,也开始滋生出诸如偏见、歧视、社会排斥、群体沖突等社会问题,进而演变成多方面的认同困境。
  一、社会认同困境的表现
  当前,我国社会认同的困境主要表现在以下六个方面:
  ( 一) 社会整合復杂化
  改革开放前,我国社会的意识形态和政党的意识形态是高度重合的,政党的思想理论基本就是社会的意识形态,其他思想意识很难有成长的空间,因此执政党不需要刻意进行社会整合,群众就已经自觉地和党中央保持一致了。其实这并不难理解,经济基础决定上层建筑,经济上追求“一大二公”、纯而又纯,不允许其它任何经济形式存在,思想上任何有关“私”的理念一萌芽就会受到打击,自然也就无法产生其它意识形态,依靠党的权威和社会影响就能够较快地实现社会整合。
  改革开放以来,随着我们对社会主义本质认识的深化以及对社会主义经济体制改革的推进,非公有制经济迅速发展,加上外来文化的强势介入,非主流意识形态迅速成长。经济结构的改变催生了利益的多样化,利益多样化又导致阶层分化,而阶层分化必然产生多样化的阶层意识,体现在意识形态上就是意识形态多样化。现在,执政党的意识形态是社会意识的主要方面,但无法对社会领域实现全覆盖,这就使得部分社会成员尤其是新社会阶层成员无法在现有主流意识形态中找到归属感,对执政党履行改革和治理形成功能障碍。这就要求突破、发展并创新经典社会主义的意识形态,实现意识形态的转型。
  “改革开放的深入发展使我国出现了大量的新兴阶层。这些新出现的社会阶层都在寻找着属于自己的位置,阶层结构之间的矛盾已经开始出现。阶层的分化打破了传统的利益格局,新的利益格局还处在形成的过程中,有时不可避免地会产生利益沖突,这使得执政党整合社会的难度加大了。”[1]这就要求必须把握好社会主义意识形态的纯洁性和包容性问题。如果我们的意识形态不纯洁,就会使核心成员对社会主义的意识形态丧失忠诚; 如果我们的意识形态包容性不足,新社会阶层成员对意识形态的支持率就必然下降。只有灵活地调整意识形态的表达方式,才能争取更多的受众。
  新社会阶层对主流意识形态具有很高的敏感性,它们非常在意主流意识形态对自己是否认同,这是观察一个阶层政治上是否有地位的标志。社会整合是否顺利,主要看执政党所提出的意识形态是否能得到全体社会阶层的广泛认同。我们所进行的社会整合,当然不是把全体社会群体整合进同一所有制以及同一分配方式当中,而是在保持各利益群体的相对独立性、承认差异的前提下,实现多元化的社会整合,创造出具有较高的灵活性和普适性的社会利益关系,再通过意识形态来引领和反映这种关系。经厉这个过程,不可能向改革开放前那样通过强制手段和行政力量来实现,只能通过规制的办法依赖制度建设来塑造权威,这个要求使执政党的社会整合变得异常復杂。
  ( 二) 司法权威虚弱化
  虽然我们已经建成了社会主义的法律体系,司法实践也取得了很大的进步,但司法领域在一定程度上存在着“号召式立法、应付式普法、运动式执法、选择式司法”现象,立法为部门争利,普法走过场,执法有弹性、司法看对象,这种状况大大削弱了司法的权威,违背了依法治国的基本精神。
  运动式执法已是多年难治的顽疾,老百姓对“集中整治、赶鸭子”等运动式执法反映强烈,花了大量人力物力财力不说,运动过后就反弹,法律法规就像一块橡皮,刚性不足,弹性有余。城管执法即是各方反映最集中的问题之一,尤其是在食品安全、拆除违法建筑、非法营运、乱摆卖等领域,在某个特定的敏感时期,经常要“加大执法力度”。然而,由于各种因素的干扰,一些执法部门却一直未真正形成有效的经常性管理,凡不投诉的即不处理,或仅仅在“整治周”、“整顿月”开展突击执法。由于缺乏日常的监管,所以影响了执法的效果和权威性,使违法者产生了不应有的侥幸心理、学会了打游击。一些执法部门为完成隐性执法指标而选择了执法难度低、不易引发矛盾的案子进行办理或处罚。
  对于各种禁令,民众有选择地失明或者失聪,这和选择性执法有关。法律既然颁布,任何人都应该严格遵守,法不在严而在必行。当法律白纸黑字必然发生实际效力时,人们才会尊重法律,并且养成守法习惯,法治的社会基础才能因此形成。以打运动战的方式来实施法律,意味着法律不能常态地发挥作用,这种偶尔发作一下的法律,会导致法律逐渐失去社会规范的作用。当法律经常被闲置,违法行为不能及时被制止或者处罚,人们就不会养成遵纪守法的良好习惯。
  尽管国家下大力气进行普法教育、提高公民的法律意识,但是仍然有许多人不愿与侵权人对簿公堂,惧怕与司法机构发生联系。他们所顾虑的是诉讼成本高、效率低、举证难的问题,因为当事人往往被这种事情弄得精疲力尽、劳民伤财。实践中,赢了官司输了钱的情况并不少见,合法权利的真正实现往往遥遥无期,以至于“官了民未了、案结事不结”成了常态。这种消极放任行为也反映出司法公信力的逐渐流失。
  ( 三) 社会关系紧张化
  社会诚信资源匮乏,人与人之间“信任感”缺失,以邻为壑,这是当前社会关系紧张的突出表现。互不信任是最具传染性的社会心态,患者置疑医生的仁心,消费者怀疑经营者的商德,群众不把干部的承诺当真,官员往往疑虑百姓的理智,穷人只信为富不仁,富人担忧穷必生乱,施援者时刻提防讹诈,受助者也怕误入陷阱。互不信任,使得社会可以共同分享的价值屈指可数。互信不存,必生冷漠。如果说工业化过程破坏了自然的植被,那麽,市场化的过程则破坏了社会的植被。当前社会诚信缺失程度可谓触目惊心。其实,这种代价不一定是市场化过程必然要经歷的,倘若我们在市场化过程中能够完善制度,建立规则,则情况不会象现在这麽糟糕。由于罔顾规则、藐视制度,不仅破坏经济社会发展秩序,而且损害社会公正,妨碍社会进步。社会领域商业欺诈、制假售假、虚报冒领等现象屡禁不止,人们对“假鞋”、“假药”、“假唱”、“假文物”等现象深恶痛绝。这些现象进一步加剧了社会关系紧张化,由此导致的直接后果是: 劣币驱逐良币,使诚实的人放弃诚实; 今天是受害者,明天是加害者; 为了少承受风险,自己就要成为第一个出手的人; 道德逸出到社会现实之外,社会关系沦为丛林法则弱肉强食。

  在各种社会关系中,尤以干群关系、警民关系、医患关系的互信破裂为甚。三公( 公权力、公益性、公众关註度高) 领域在处理具体问题时如果不能公正的履行职责,就是对社会信任的摧残。以干群关系为例,基层群众对干部的形式主义作风深恶痛绝,群众对干部的认同度越来越低,干群关系出现裂痕,干部不是真心维护群众利益,群众不认可干部的工作作风。“农民对基层干部特别是组织的不信任,直接的后果就是国家的社会控制和动员能力下降。”[2]长此下去,会伤及社会认同的基础,进一步损害干群关系,危及执政党的执政安全。今天的群众工作,与以往最大的不同,就是群众权利意识逐渐增强、权利诉求不断增加。能否维护好群众的利益,取决于干部是否能调整自己的立场,真心实意地“对人民负责”。
  城市化的窄空间、信息化的快节奏为社会关系的紧张化提供了外部环境。当今,世界所有地区都正在一步步地走向城市化,中国不也例外。诺贝尔经济学奖获得者斯蒂格列茨认为,新世纪对中国来讲有三大挑战,居于首位的是中国的城市化。21 世纪,中国城市化不仅仅决定着 6. 6 亿城市居民的安居乐业,更是一个决定着中国几亿农民最终命运的重大问题。因为城市化是减少农民的过程,也是缩小城乡差别、实现共同富裕的过程。据预测,到2050 年,中国城市人口总量将达到 10 - 11 亿,也就是说,从现在起,中国每年将有 1200 万农民转化为城市人口。城市化的过程就是新移入城市居民和原城市居民共享城市资源的过程,这个过程不可避免地存在社会关系紧张的问题。工作压力加大致使家庭关系紧张,融入过程的生存竞争致使就业关系紧张,强资本弱劳动致使劳资关系紧张,富裕阶层的社会责任感缺失致使贫富关系紧张,市场规则不彰、特权阶层嚣张则共同促成人际关系的全面紧张化,当前的“仇富”、“仇官”、“仇垄断”现象即是社会关系紧张化的直接反映。社会关系紧张,就容易激化社会矛盾,使简单社会问题復杂化,会提高社会交易成本,最终将人人受损。
  ( 四) 社会焦虑普遍化
  我国社会正在步入焦虑状态: 富人焦虑,穷人也焦虑; 城镇居民焦虑,农民工也焦虑; 失业的焦虑,已经就业的也焦虑; 民众焦虑,大学生焦虑,官员更焦虑。焦虑迅速蔓延到各个社会阶层,成为一种普遍的社会现象。每个人的抗压能力和情绪自我控制能力不同,任何社会都会有焦虑的个体。焦虑作为一个个体状态,本来并不值得恐慌,但是如果作为一个社会整体的焦虑,则不可忽视。因为,焦虑的背后,其实是不安。社会的不安全感和生存压力持续地考验着公众的心理承受能力,焦虑情绪不断积累加深,最终酿成为全社会性的问题,导致社会冷漠无情,抑郁癥频发。
  国人的经济生活在得到改善的同时,也带来了一些弊端。例如,人们工作和生存压力加大,生活消费水平无止境上升,许多家庭的最基本需求都已经无法满足,人们的幸福感并没有随着腰包的鼓起而相应地提升。引发全民焦虑的,不仅仅在于收入赶不上 GDP,更在于收入不均、分配不公、腐败盛行、道德滑坡、社会无序。按规矩出牌的人赶不上不按规矩出牌的人,好人赶不上坏人,循规蹈矩的人赶不上投机倒把的人,遵纪守法的人赶不上违法犯罪的人。于是,一些人置法律和道德于不顾进行投机倒把、坑蒙拐骗的违法行为。社会进入了一种可怕的怪圈: 即大家都在埋怨社会无规则,而一有机会自己则又去破坏规则; 大家都在埋怨道德滑坡,而一有机会自己则成为道德滑坡的推手; 这些人既是焦虑的受害者,又是焦虑的制造者。
  叔本华曾经说过: 生命是一团欲望,欲望不满足便痛苦,满足便无聊。传统社会是自然经济、自我调节,社会个体的欲望在各种道德、宗教与制度的调节下,人们只能压抑。进入工业化过程后,经济迅速增长,物质极大丰富,人们的各种欲望也比较容易满足。殊不知,人的欲望是无止境的,欲望最容易膨胀,而经济发展则不可能永远是直线上升的,当经济进入下降趋势或者遇到金融危机、经济萧条时,原本很容易满足的欲望就可能无法满足了。这时候,人的心理就会产生巨大的挫折感,出现焦虑情绪。焦虑与内心欲望得不到满足和心理挫折是密切相关的。马尔库塞所描述的工业文明社会“单向度的人”在中国主要表现为焦虑的个体,焦虑伴随着不安,成为工业化过程中的主色调。在急功近利的社会心态下,多少人梦想着一夜成名或者一夜暴富,希望用极少的付出换取最大的回报,这种急功近利的社会心态下面,其实掩藏了人们对自身处境的不安以及对现实的不满。
  以四个城市数千户居民为样本,有学者对我国社会转型期城市人群心理压力情况进行了心理测试和问卷调查,结果显示: 社会转型的变化与竞争、不确定性等压力源是形成焦虑的主要原因。[3]此外,民生保障不健全及社会不公现象,加剧了中低层民众的焦虑感。“入园难”、“看病难”、“就业难”、“买房难”等问题,大多数人必须面对。人们面临着太多的不确定性。例如,是持有股票、还是持有现金、抑或持有黄金,哪个更能保值,谁也说不清楚。这种不确定性尤其体现在国家经济政策上的变化。宏观调控政策多变,预期方向不明确,造成人们对未来经济走势的预期难以研判,这无谓地增加了很多社会焦虑情绪。
  我国需要建立宏观经济调控的法律体系,依法进行宏观调控。如果我们都能按照法律法规来做,知道政府会如何出牌,那麽政府就是可预期的政府。由于未来的高度不确定性,人们在心理上最容易产生紧张和不适。现在很多富人移民国外,不是对自己没有把握,而是对社会走势没有把握,不知道哪一天政府会出什麽对他们不利的政策,焦虑由此产生。一些年纪大的人为社会保障和养老问题而焦虑,身体有病的人为看病焦虑,物价上涨让所有老百姓焦虑。就是做了大官,也有焦虑。官员怕说错了话,或者得罪了哪个领导,为个人前途而焦虑。人与人之间的关系不是通过明确的制度来调整,而是通过政策进行调整。由于政策缺乏连贯性,今天制定一个政策,明天再制定另一个政策,这样就增加了社会运转的不确定性,人们就容易对未来形成焦虑。

  ( 五) 社会沖突群体化
  伴随着社会生活的细微变化,极易促使敏感的人们产生相应的社会态度和信念,这些态度支撑着一些约定俗成的行为。例如,大规模的群体性事件就符合这样的逻辑模式: 即想要解决什麽问题,先把问题搞大; 一个人的问题没人管,一千个人的问题就有人管; 把问题摆到大街上去,威胁到社会“稳定”了,问题就会得到更好的解决。社会沖突的群体化发展,加剧了社会矛盾的内在张力。
  每个国家处于不同的阶段都将面临不同的社会沖突并呈现出不同的时代特点,当前我国群体性沖突事件的主要特点表现为以下几点:
  1. 矛盾主体的两端是私对公。在社会全面转型的背景下,公众与地方政府、村民与村基层组织、职工与企业之间的群体性矛盾明显增多,矛盾基本表现为公权与私权的对抗。纠纷主体也由过去的公民与公民之间变为公民与法人之间、公民与政府及其职能部门之间。
  2. 民意诉求表达方式呈现多元化。除了直接对抗的传统方式之外,目前出现了多种表达利益诉求的方式。因为,面对沖突,民众和政府都在极力避免直接对抗方式,努力探索更文明、更有效的表达方式,如“集体散步”、“集体喝茶”、“集体旅游”等。
  3. 引发群体性事件的燃点降低。有些群体性事件往往是由小摩擦或者小纠纷引起的,这些微小摩擦在执政当局眼中没有引起足够的重视,只要有一个导火索,就能酿成大火,谁也不知道它的边界在哪里、发展到什麽程度是终点。客观上看,人们对改革发展的预期普遍提高,但由于种种原因,部分公众的诉求长期得不到有效地处理,以致心态失衡,加上潜在的社会矛盾的影响,一起很小的事情,就可能导致社会成员借机宣泄不满情绪,成为社会矛盾沖突的“导火索”。
  4. 非直接利益相关者因宣泄不满而参与到群体性事件中来。群体性事件的反抗对象可能不仅仅是施加生存压力的强势者,他们的生存压力和无法释放的不满可能会将整个社会作为宣泄对象,甚至指向无辜的普通民众。特别是非直接利益相关者参与的群体性事件,由于事发突然、动机多样、升级较快,所以导致难预防、难排查、难处置、难善后。发生这种现象的原因在于一部分公众认为改革发展成果没有得到共享,不认同现有的分配格局,一旦遇到事端,他们便借机表达不满,使事态不断扩大。
  “2009 年中国公共安全方面的财政支出增加了16% ,总金额高达 5140 亿元人民币,相当于医疗卫生财政支出的 2. 6 倍,与社会保障和就业的财政支出相接近。”[4]政府花这麽多钱,不是解决影响稳定的社会问题,而是用来阻止老百姓到北京上访。控制上访是中央对地方官员政绩考核的一项指标,“截访”居然成了地方政府的一项重要工作,一些基层政府每年因“截访”发生的开支惊人。公权滥用,维权制度不完善,沟通渠道不畅达,公民维权无门,前景迷失,信仰沦丧,在此背景下,群体性事件难以避免的升级与高发。
  ( 六) 精英流失加速化
  2010 年 6 月,中国颁布了《国家中长期人才发展规划纲要( 2010 -2020 年) 》,提出到 2020 年中国人才发展要进入世界人才强国行列。而另一方面,却是以新富阶层、知识精英为代表的群体正在集中移民出走他国。2007 年,中国社科院发布的《全球政治与安全》报告显示,我国海侨胞的数量超过4500 万,已成为世界上最大的移民输出国。
  纵观我国改革开放以来出现的三轮移民潮,上世纪 80 年代的移民带有一定的盲目性,90 年代的移民带有一定的理性,本世纪初开始的移民带有综合性特点。考虑到国外的环境、社会保障、子女教育等综合因素,相比较于国内大城市户籍制度藩篱、高房价、竞争激烈的就业等因素,移民自然就成为不少人的选择。近年来,我国的移民潮不仅数量大幅上升,还呈现出高学歷、高技术、高成本等特点。加拿大移民局的数据称: 2009 年,加拿大投资移民全球目标人数为 2055 人,中国大陆的名额就占了一半。以投资起步价 40 万加元( 约 235 万人民币) 计算,仅 2009 年从中国流向加拿大的财富至少是 23. 5 亿元人民币。尽管对我国的知识精英和财富精英是否集体“外流”这个问题仍存在争议,但一个不争的事实却是: 中国能否留住人才,已经成为目前国内自上而下共同关註的问题。
  中国社会正面临着中坚阶层的流失以及由此引发的对中国巨额资金逃离的担忧。不少国人意识到投资移民引起财富外流的严重后果,有网友发表评论认为,这些通过投资移民手段出国的人是“没有责任感”,“一富就熘”。客观地说,富人移民是社会弥漫的非理性仇富情绪、体制性的歧视、缺少对个人私权尤其是财产权明确的法律保障以及社会交易成本过高等因素共同造成的,这折射出国内体制改革滞后、社会监督乏力和法治进程的受阻。国内的企业家感觉没有安全感,总是提心吊胆,不知道什麽时候,自己的企业会被监管部门以什麽理由把企业给毁了。
  社会学家总结出来的一个趋势是: 人才、技术、资金都是从发达地区逐渐转移到欠发达地区的。然而,我们的情况却恰恰相反,这背后反映出的问题值得我们深思。移民的吸引力主要来自于国外制度的开放性、公平性和社会的可预期性。对于知识精英来说,国外社会所能提供的公平机会更多; 对于财富精英来说,吸引他们的是相对稳定的期许。人才之所以出走,最主要的问题是他们对自己未来的预期出现了问题。与以往移民的目的是追求财富相比,现在移民的人群不是为了简单的生存需求而离开,他们要追求的是安全感。这个安全感可以是为他们自己,也可以是为他们孩子今后的生活考虑。而这一点正是我们当下社会所欠缺的。大批人才外流,不仅带走了一个国家在其成长过程中所不可缺少的技术、能量、财富,也带走了社会成长的信心以及对未来社会认同的期望。
  二、社会认同困境的管理
  社会认同的困境加剧了国人的精神危机和信仰危机。由于没有社会认同,失望和不满成了社会的主色调,这种情绪对青少年一代尤其具有严重的后果。由于未来高度的不确定性,他们的内心也同样承受着对理想与现实的迷茫,这会影响着他们对人性的最基本的理解。现在中国的一些年轻人中,他们的生活没有准则,只图满足物欲和感官享受,蜗居一族、月光一族、啃老一族占据不在少数。由于就业形势严峻,一些年轻人看到自我价值无法实现,便开始尝试摇头丸等新鲜毒品。“跟随着全社会的物质主义的是普遍的不幸福感,是形式多样的反社会行为,如不信任任何人,毫无理由的仇杀,甚至是自杀。”[5]信仰危机已经成为困扰我国社会的顽疾,如果再不介入干预,就会错失良机,加剧社会认同的瓦解。
  ( 一) 重建社会信任
  市场经济本身不是产生利他占主导地位的运转机制。等价交换和平等互利原则是在交易双方力量对比和利益争夺的较量中得到贯彻的。虽然市场契约能够抑制过度的利己行为,但不可能杜绝产生这种行为的可能性。何况,人类的许多活动不是靠市场契约,而是靠信任去连接运转的。社会信任是社会安全感的主要来源,你爱,就不冷漠; 你信任,才能收获信任。安全感有赖于稳定的基础秩序,这种社会秩序通过人与人、人与社会组织之间的分工合作和彼此信任而存在。每一个人都是社会分工体系中的一员,各司其职,各安其位,通过交换,分享由分工所带来的福利。一旦职守错位,秩序就会受到伤害,每个人都能切实感受到这种无秩序所带来的不良后果。从苏丹红到三聚氰胺,从硫磺到敌敌畏,我们的化学知识都普及了一遍,但我们的饮食却变得更加不安全。由此可见,如果没有社会成员之间的相互信任与合作,社会大厦顷刻之间就会倒塌。
  重建社会信任,需要做的工作很多,首先是“信任”。以诚感人者,人亦诚应之。一句信任的话语,可以成为化干戈为玉帛的信使,一个信任的眼神,可以激发无穷的潜力。与欺骗一样,不信任其实也是一种无言的伤害,尤其一个原本应该给予信任的事物遭到怀疑时,这样的伤害对于双方都具有破坏力。平等是信任的沃土,平等的社会才能产生普遍的信任。如果贫富差距过大,富人警惕穷人,那麽,穷人也不会相信富人。只有当人们相互能够平视时,人们才易于相处,也便于形成共同的价值准则。政府的诚信是社会诚信之本,因此政府要高度重视自身的诚信建设问题,通过完善相关制度,努力建设诚实、自律、守信、互信的社会信用环境,使诚实守信者得到保护,欺骗失信者受到惩戒。只有通过推进政务公开、提高决策透明度,才能不断提升公信力,使政府部门在社会诚信和信用体系建设中起示范带头作用。
  ( 二) 维护司法权威
  亚里士多德指出,法治应该包含两重含义: 已制定的法律获得普遍服从,而大家所服从的法律又应该本身是制定得良好的法律。[6]法律作为社会最基本的制度,是保障社会公正的基本武器。司法权威弱化的直接后果就是法律不能为社会兜底,规则不存,社会大厦的基础就会动摇。近年来,在涉诉信访问题方面,出现了一股信访司法化、司法信访化的倾向。即当事人因诉求未满足就怀疑司法公正,乃至以身抗法,这是“无政府主义”行为模式在司法领域的体现。这种舍弃司法途径、寻求权力干预的行为,正是“人治”方式的怪胎。例如,当事人对司法机关做出的不利裁决,不是通过法律程序解决诉求,而是在心理上渴望见到“大官”,所以出现了越级访、进京访等“告御状”的现象。这种“人比法大”的意识,日积月累成了信访人“告御状”的原动力。当他们的告状意识形成一种情结时,也就愈加坚定了不放弃的决心。有的甚至拿着法院的终审判决去上访,把上访理解为法律终审裁决之后的一个程序,使得社会问题的裁决变得没完没了。当事人对司法裁决固然有要求改变的权利,但是这种权利与其他权利一样,也应该依法行使,而不能自行其是,更不能以违背公众利益的方式实现。如果人人都以激烈的手段去达到目的,而司法机关惟恐发生矛盾不利于“维稳”而不敢坚持合法裁决,就会导致司法活动低效,甚至无效,从而损害所有社会成员的权益。当然,对司法权力的行使必须严格监督,失去监督的司法权力与其他公权力一样,也会膨胀和腐败。对司法权的监督,应尊重法律尊严和司法权威,应符合宪法原则,有利于司法者独立行使职权。维护司法权威,要求行政权力对司法尊重、服从和支持,没有这种尊重、服从和支持,司法裁决就不能执行,司法权威自然也无从谈起。行政权力要达到保障民生、维护人权的目标,离开权威的司法制约和支持也不会实现。只有司法者与社会各界共同信法、守法和护法,才能维护司法权威,确保司法体制的运转功能,实现建设法治国家的理想才能成为现实。
  ( 三) 加强对权力的约束和监管
  造成社会认同困境的各种问题几乎都与官员失职及政府失察有关。资本追逐利润,个人追求利益,本来无可厚非,但是如果缺乏必要的规则制约,导致拜金主义泛滥、物欲横流、世风日下、社会环境恶化,应该说,官德的败坏则是首因。地方政府失去民心,民怨沸腾,这对社会认同的沖击很大。官员的行为对社会具有示范效应,但是如果官员以权谋私、侵害百姓权益,民众就会觉得社会管理者都不讲道德,凭什麽要求我们讲道德。所谓“官德隆,民德昌,国家兴; 官德毁,民德降,国家衰”; 官德彰则政权稳,官德丧则政权失。约束权力,依法治理,规则运行,只有这样,才能协调社会关系,规范社会行为,促进社会公正。社会规则存,则民心向好,国民经济向好。当然,我们并不奢望一次性解决社会公正问题,社会规则的建立总是从点点滴滴开始的,坚毅与持恒,强于等待与观望。问渠哪得清如许,为有源头活水来。正本清源,社会肌体才能健康,社会认同才能回来。
译文:
Abstract: China's economic construction has made great achievements in the same time, also appeared in the social sphere multifaceted identity dilemmas. Will lead to the loss of social identity and social management more difficult, social functioning costs. Only timely intervention management, in order to enhance and promote the social identity.
Keywords: social identity; ideology; papers to write
Describes itself as a group identity and group consciousness of the social concept, social identity through social status, membership, class consciousness, personal contacts and other dimensions to describe the relationship between the individual and society. If an individual's behavior or social ideas and social norms expect consistent, personal trust and a sense of belonging with the surrounding community, recognizing the legitimacy of the relevant authority and power, consistent with the above-mentioned self-recognition feature, then this society will have the basic social identity, on the contrary, is considered to be the loss of social identity. As an overarching indicator of social identity and social security and stability of the effective functioning of the lubricant. 30 years of reform and opening up of the traditional mode of social identity has undergone tremendous changes, unit person to person rapidly changing society, lifestyle, employment, distribution, diversity of ways of thinking in promoting social progress, but also began to breed out, such as prejudice, discrimination, social exclusion, group conflict and other social problems, and then evolved into a multi-faceted identity dilemmas.
First, the performance of social identity dilemmas
At present, China's social identity dilemma lies in the following six areas:
(A) social integration complexity
Before the reform, China's social and political ideology is the ideology of the high degree of overlap, is the party's ideological and theoretical basic social ideology, the other ideology is difficult to have room to grow, so the ruling party does not need to deliberately for social integration, masses had consciously and consistency of the CPC Central Committee. In fact, this is not difficult to understand the economic base determines the superstructure, the economic pursuit of 'a sophomore public' pure but pure, does not allow any other form of economic, ideological any such 'private' concept would be a budding blow, naturally can not produce other ideology, relying on the party's authority and social impact will be able to quickly achieve social integration.
Since reform and opening, as we deepen understanding the nature of socialism and the socialist economic system reform forward, the rapid development of non-public economy, coupled with the strong involvement of foreign culture, the rapid growth of non-mainstream ideology. Change the economic structure spawned a diversity of interests, the interests of diversification has led to stratification, and stratification inevitably produce a diverse class consciousness, ideology is reflected in the diverse ideologies. Now, is the ideology of the ruling party's main areas of social consciousness, but can not achieve full coverage on the social sphere, which makes some members of society, especially the new social class members can not be found in existing mainstream ideology of a sense of belonging to the ruling party performance and governance reforms formed dysfunction. This requires a breakthrough development and innovation classic socialist ideology, to achieve ideological transformation.
'Reform and opening up the development of our country there have been a large number of emerging sectors. These emerging social strata are looking forward to their own position, the contradiction between the hierarchical structure has begun to emerge. Stratification to break the traditional pattern of interests, The new pattern of interests is still in the process of formation, sometimes inevitably create conflicts of interest, which makes it harder for the ruling party of social integration. '[1] This will require a good grasp of the socialist ideological purity and inclusion issues. If we do not ideological purity, it will make the core members of the socialist ideology lose loyalty; inclusiveness if we lack the ideology, the new social strata support for members of the ideology is bound to fall. Only the flexibility to adjust the ideology of expression, in order to attract more audience.
New social stratum of the mainstream ideology has high sensitivity, they are very concerned about whether the mainstream ideology of their own identity, which is observed in a class whether it is politically respectable mark. Social integration is smooth, mainly to see whether the ideology of the ruling made by all sectors of society can be widely recognized. We have conducted social integration, of course, not all social groups to integrate into the same ownership and the same distribution among the various interest groups but maintaining the relative independence, acknowledging differences in the premise, to achieve a wide range of social integration, to create a has high flexibility and universality of social interests, and through ideology to lead and to reflect this relationship. The process by Li, it is impossible to reform and opening up, as through coercion and administrative power to achieve only through regulation approach relies authority to shape the system construction, this requirement so that the ruling party's social integration becomes extremely complicated.
(Two) weakness of the judicial authority
Although we have built a socialist legal system, judicial practice has made great progress, but to some extent, the area of justice there is a 'call-in legislation, perfunctory legal literacy campaign-style law enforcement, selective justice' phenomenon, legislative compete for the division, the Franco-Prussian going through the motions, law enforcement has the flexibility to look at the object of justice, this situation greatly weakened the authority of the judiciary, contrary to the basic spirit of the rule of law.
Campaign-style law enforcement is refractory chronic illness for many years, the people of the 'concentration and control, driving a duck' and other campaign-style law enforcement reflects the strong and spend a lot of manpower and material resources do not say, on the rebound after exercise, laws and regulations as an eraser, less rigid elastic surplus. Urban management and law enforcement that are parties to reflect one of the issues most concentrated, especially in the food safety, removal of illegal construction, illegal trading, indiscriminate hawking other fields, in a particular sensitive period, often to 'strengthen law enforcement.' However, due to the interference of various factors, some law enforcement authorities but has not really form an effective recurrent management, who do not deal with complaints that are not, or only in the 'rectification Week', 'straighten month' blitz conducted. Due to lack of daily supervision, thus affecting the effectiveness of law enforcement and authority, so that the offender had undue luck, learned guerrilla warfare. Some law enforcement agencies for the completion of recessive Enforcement Indicators and the choice of law enforcement difficulty is low, easy to carry handle cases lead to contradictions or punishment.
For various bans, people are selectively blind or deaf, this and related selective enforcement. Since the promulgation of the law, anyone should be strictly adhered to, laws are not strict but in the pipeline. When the inevitable practical effectiveness of the law in black and white, people will respect the law, and encourage law-abiding habits, the social basis of the rule of law can be so formed. In mobile warfare approach to implementation of the law, meaning that the law can not normally play a role, such occasional bouts of what the law will lead to the gradual loss of the legal role of social norms. When the law is often idle, violations or penalties can not be stopped in time, law-abiding people will not develop good habits.
While national legal education make great efforts to improve the legal awareness of citizens, but there are still many people who do not want and tort lawsuits, fear into contact with the Judiciary. They are concerns that high litigation costs, low efficiency, the difficult problem of proof, because the parties often wearied by this kind of thing, a waste of resources. In practice, Yingliaoguansi lost money is not uncommon, often truly legitimate rights within the foreseeable future, so that 'officials of the China unfinished, something that does not bear Case Closed' has become the norm. This negative faire behavior also reflects a gradual loss of the credibility of the judiciary.
(Three) strained social relations
Social integrity of lack of resources, between people 'trust' missing, the expense of others, which is the current social tensions outstanding performance. Distrust the social mentality is most contagious patients questioned the doctor's benevolence, consumers suspected operators of commercial ethics, cadres and the masses do not put the commitment seriously, officials often worries people's mind, only the letter of heartless poor, the rich concerns about the poor will be an uproar, always beware of those who applied to aid blackmail recipients also afraid of straying into the trap. Distrust, making the value of community can share a handful. Trust does not exist, is bound to produce indifference. If we say that the process of industrialization destroyed the natural vegetation, then the process of market-oriented society is destroyed vegetation. Honesty current social level can be described as shocking. In fact, this cost is not necessarily the market must go through the process, if we are in the market process can improve the system, create rules, the situation is not so bad as they are now. Because ignoring the rules, and despised regime, not only undermine the economic and social development order, but also undermines social justice, hinder social progress. Social sphere of commercial fraud, fake goods, false impersonator phenomenon repeated, people on the 'fake shoes', 'fake', 'lip-synching', 'fake relics' and so hated. These phenomena further exacerbating strained social relations, which led to a direct consequence: bad money drives out good money, so that honest people to give honest; victims today, tomorrow is the victimizer; less exposed to the risk that he would become The first shots of people; moral escape into the social reality, the social relations become jungle jungle.

In a variety of social relations, especially between cadres, public relations, mutual trust patient relationship breakdown is staggering. Excellencies (public authority, public welfare, public concern is high) to deal with specific problems in the field if you can not just perform their duties, that is, the destruction of social trust. In cadre, for example, grassroots cadres and the masses of the formalist style abhorrence degree of recognition of the masses of cadres and more low, cracks between cadres, cadres and the masses do not really safeguard the interests of the people do not recognize the work style of cadres. 'Farmers are organized grass-roots cadres, especially mistrust direct consequence of the country's social control and mobilization capacity decline.' [2] If this trend continues, it will hurt the social basis of identity, further damage cadre, threatening the ruling party governing safety. Today's mass work, the biggest difference with the past is that people gradually increase awareness of rights, rights, demands continue to increase. Can safeguard the interests of the masses, depending on whether the cadres to adjust their stance wholeheartedly 'to the people.'
Urbanization, narrow space, fast-paced information society has provided a tension between the external environment. Today, all regions of the world is a step towards urbanization, China is also not an exception. Nobel laureate 斯蒂格列茨 that the new century, there are three major challenges for China in terms of living in the first place is China's urbanization. The 21st century, China's urbanization is not only determines the 660 million urban residents live and work, it is a decision to hundreds of millions of Chinese peasants ultimate fate of the major issues. Because urbanization process is to reduce the farmers, but also narrow the urban-rural divide and achieve common prosperity. It is predicted that by 2050, China's urban population will reach 10 - 1.1 billion, that is, from now on, China will have 12 million annually farmers into urban population. The process of urbanization is the new urban residents into urban residents and the original urban resources sharing process that inevitably the question of social tensions. Working pressures resulting family tensions, competition for survival into the process resulting in tensions between employment, strong capital resulting in weak labor strained labor relations, lack of social responsibility affluent resulting tensions between rich and poor, the market rules been apparent, privileged arrogance is common contributed to the overall strained relationships, the current 'hatred of the rich,' 'hatred official', 'Qiu monopoly' is a social phenomenon that is a direct reflection of strained relations. Social tensions are likely to intensify social contradictions, the simple complicated social problems will increase social transaction costs, and ultimately everyone will suffer.
(Four) generalized social anxiety
Our society is entering a state of anxiety: Anxiety rich, the poor also anxiety; urban residents anxiety, migrant workers also anxiety; unemployment anxiety, anxiety also have employment; public anxiety, Anxiety, officials anxious. Anxiety quickly spread to all social classes, become a widespread social phenomenon. Each person's resiliency and emotional self-control are different, there will be no social anxiety individuals. Anxiety as an individual state, would not be worth panic, but if anxiety as a society as a whole, it can not be ignored. Because, anxiety behind, in fact disturbed. Social insecurity and continuing pressure to survive a test of the public's mental capacity, continue to accumulate anxiety deepened and eventually led to the whole society issues, leading to social apathy, depression frequently.
In the economic life of the people improved, but also brings some drawbacks. For example, people working and living pressures, rising consumption levels indefinitely, many families have been unable to meet the most basic needs, people's happiness and not with pockets bulging and correspondingly improved. Caused universal anxiety, not only because incomes are not keeping GDP, but also because income inequality, unfair distribution, widespread corruption, moral decline and social disorder. People who can not keep up the cards outlaw outlaw the cards of people, good catch bad guys, conformist people who can not keep up speculation, criminal law-abiding people who can not keep up. Therefore, some people set the expense of legal and ethical conduct speculation, swindling offenses. Society into a terrible vicious circle: that everyone is blaming society without rules, and a chance himself went to break the rules; everyone is complaining moral decline, and an opportunity to become the moral decline of its own promoter; these people is both a victim of anxiety, but also anxiety maker.
Schopenhauer once said: Life is a group desire, desire is not satisfied then the pain, to meet it boring. Traditional society is a natural economy, self-regulation, social individual desires in a variety of moral, religious and institutional regulation, one can only depressed. After entering the process of industrialization, rapid economic growth, great material wealth, people's desires are more easily met. As everyone knows, the human desire is endless desire most likely expansion, and economic development will not always be straight up when the economy into a downward trend or face financial crisis, economic depression, the original is easy to meet the desire may can not be satisfied. At this time, people will have a huge psychological frustration, anxiety emotions. Anxiety and inner desires are not met and psychological setbacks are closely related. Marcuse describes industrial civilization 'One Dimensional Man' in China mainly for individual anxiety, anxiety associated with anxiety, as the process of industrialization of the main colors. In the instant success of the social mentality, many people dream of overnight fame or fortune overnight, with little hope of paying for maximum return, following this quick profit social mentality, in fact, people hide their own situation and the reality of uneasiness dissatisfaction.
Thousands of households in four cities in the sample, some scholars on China's social transformation psychological pressure of urban population carried out psychological tests and questionnaires, the results show: the change of social transformation and competition, uncertainties and other pressure source is a form of anxiety the main reason. [3] In addition, livelihood security and social injustice is not perfect, the people in the lower exacerbated anxiety. 'Hard park', 'difficult', 'Employment', 'buy a house difficult' and other issues, most people have to face. People faced with too much uncertainty. For example, is to hold the stock, or cash, or holding gold, which can better hedge against inflation, nobody had a clue. This uncertainty is reflected in the country's economic policy, especially on the changes. Changing macro-control policies, it is expected direction is not clear, resulting in people's expectations of future economic trends is difficult judgments, which needlessly adds a lot of social anxiety.
China needs to establish a legal system of macroeconomic regulation and control, according to macro-control. If we can do in accordance with laws and regulations, the government will know how the cards, then the government is to be expected of the government. High degree of uncertainty because the future, people most prone to psychological tension and discomfort. Now a lot of rich people abroad, and not on their own are not sure, but did not grasp the social movements, not knowing what the day will be out of the government's policy against them, the resulting anxiety. Some older people social security and pension issues and anxiety, sick human doctor anxiety, anxiety rising prices for all people. Is to do a high official, but also anxiety. Officials fear the wrong thing, or which offend the leadership of the personal future and anxiety. The relationship between people than through a clear system to adjust, but through policy adjustments. Since lack of policy coherence, to develop a policy today, tomorrow, and then another policy formulation, thus increasing the uncertainty of the functioning of society, people are likely to form the future anxiety.

(Five) groups of social conflict
Accompanied by subtle changes in social life, easy to procure sensitive people to produce the corresponding social attitudes and beliefs, these attitudes supporting some common behavior. For example, large-scale mass incidents on the line with this logic model: that what you want to solve the problem, the problem first make great; a human problem nobody, one thousand personal problems, someone pipes; the issue to the fore street up, threatening social 'stability', and the problem will be a better solution. Development of social conflict groups, exacerbating social contradictions inherent tension. 

At different stages of each country will be faced with different social conflicts and to show different characteristics of the times, the current conflict in the event of mass main characteristics are as following:
1 contradiction ends of the main body of the public is private. In the context of overall social transformation, the public and local government, the villagers and the village of grass-roots organizations, trade unions and enterprises contradiction between the groups significantly increased the performance of the basic contradictions of public and private rights of confrontation. Disputes subject from the past between the citizens and the citizens become citizens and legal persons and between citizens and the government and its functional departments.
(2) expression of public opinion demands diversified. In addition to the traditional way of direct confrontation, there are now expressing interest demands appeared in a variety of ways. Because the face of conflict, people and governments are keen to avoid direct confrontation way, efforts to explore more civilized, more efficient way of expression, such as 'collective walk', 'collective tea', 'group travel', etc.
3 lead to mass incidents ignition reduced. Some of mass incidents often caused by small friction or small disputes caused friction in these tiny eyes of the ruling authorities did not arouse enough attention, as long as there is a fuse, could lead to fire, who do not know where it borders , to what extent is the end. Objective point of view, people are expected to generally improve the reform and development, but for various reasons, some of the demands of the public is not effectively deal with the long-term, resulting in mental balance, coupled with the potential impact of social conflicts, along with small things, they may lead members of society the opportunity to vent their discontent, a social conflict 'fuse.'
4 Indirect stakeholders to participate due to dissatisfaction and mass incidents in the past. Group events may be more than the resistance of an object exert strong pressure to survive, they can not release the pressure on the survival and discontent might target the entire community as a catharsis, or even point to the innocent ordinary people. Especially non-direct stakeholder group events, as happened suddenly, motivations varied, upgrade faster, thus resulting in difficult to prevent, difficult to troubleshoot, difficult disposition, difficult aftermath. This phenomenon occurs because the part of the public that the reform did not get to share the fruits of development, do not agree with the existing distribution structure in the event of trouble, they took the opportunity to express their dissatisfaction, the situation continues to expand.
'2009 China's public security spending increased by 16%, the total amount of up to 514 billion yuan, equivalent to health care expenditure of 2.6 times, and social security and employment spending close to.' [4] Government spending so much money, not solve social problems affecting stability, but to prevent people to Beijing to petition. Control petition is central to local officials as an indicator of performance evaluation, 'petitioners' actually become an important task for local government and some local governments each year due to 'petitioners' expenses incurred amazing. Abuse of public power, rights system is imperfect, communication channels are not accessible, civic activist nowhere, lost prospects, beliefs turpitude, in this context, group events inevitable upgrades and high.
(Six) accelerated the loss of elite
June 2010, China promulgated the 'national long-term talent development program (2010-2020 years),' and proposed to the 2020 China Talent Development Talent to enter the ranks of the world. On the other hand, it is the new rich, educated elite, represented by immigrant groups are concentrated flee his country. In 2007, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences published 'Global Politics and Security' report shows that the number of the sea more than 45 million overseas Chinese has become the world's largest exporter of migrants.
Throughout emerged since China's reform and opening up three emigration of immigrants in the 1980s with a certain blindness, 90 immigrants with a certain rationality, the beginning of this century immigrants with comprehensive features. Taking into account the foreign environment, social security, children's education and other comprehensive factors, compared to domestic cities hukou system barriers, high housing prices, employment and other competitive factors, immigration naturally become many people's choice. In recent years, China's substantial increase in emigration not only the quantity, but also showing a highly educated, high-tech, high-cost and so on. Citizenship and Immigration Canada, said the data: in 2009, the Canadian Immigrant Investor global target number of 2,055 people in mainland China accounted for half of the quota. Starting to invest $ 400,000 (about 2.35 million yuan) calculation, only the 2009 Canadian wealth flows from China is at least 2.35 billion yuan. Despite the wealth of our country's intellectual elite and elite are collective 'exodus' This issue remains controversial, but one indisputable fact is: Can China retain talent, has become the domestic top-down issues of common concern.
Chinese society is facing backbone segments and the consequent loss of huge amounts of money to flee to China worries. Many people realized investment immigration outflow of wealth caused serious consequences, with commenters that these means of immigration through investment abroad were 'no sense of responsibility,' 'a rich on the slip.' Objectively speaking, the rich immigrants are filled with irrational hatred of the rich social emotions, institutional discrimination, the lack of individual private rights, especially property rights explicit legal protection and social factors such as high transaction costs of common cause, which reflects the national institutions reforms lag, weak supervision and the rule of social processes blocked. Domestic entrepreneurs feel insecure, always nervous, do not know when their companies are regulators for what reasons the enterprise to destroy.
Sociologist summed up a trend: talent, technology, capital from the developed areas are gradually transferred to the less developed regions. However, in our case, by contrast, reflects the problems behind this is worth considering. Attractiveness of immigrants mainly from foreign institutional openness, fairness and social predictability. For the intellectual elite, the foreign community can provide more equitable access; For the wealth of the elite, it attracts them is relatively stable expectations. The reason why people leave, the main problem is about their expectations for the future problems. The purpose of the previous immigrants is the pursuit of wealth now than immigrant populations is not to simply survive needs to leave, they want to pursue is a sense of security. This sense of security can be for themselves, it can be life for their child's future consideration. Which is what is lacking in our present society. A large number of brain drain, not only took a country in its growth process of the indispensable technology, energy and wealth, but also took away the confidence of social development as well as the expectations for the future of social identity.
Second, the management of social identity dilemmas
Social identity exacerbated the plight of people's spiritual crisis and a crisis of faith. In the absence of social identity, disappointment and discontent became society's main colors, such sentiments, especially for the younger generation have serious consequences. Because the future is highly uncertain, their hearts also bear on the ideal and the reality of confusion, which would affect their basic understanding of human nature. Now some of China's young people, their lives no criteria, they only satisfy material desires and sensual enjoyment, dwelling owners, moonlight family, eating the old family occupy a minority. As the employment situation is grim, some young people see the self-worth can not be achieved, they began to try ecstasy and other fresh drugs. 'With the whole society with materialism is widespread unhappiness is various forms of antisocial behavior, such as do not trust anyone, no reason vendetta, and even suicide.' [5] a crisis of faith has become a problem in China social ills, if we do not intervene, it will miss the opportunity, exacerbated the collapse of social identity.
(A) rebuilding social trust
The market economy itself is not the dominant produce altruistic operation mechanism. Principles of equality and mutual exchange of equal parties in the transaction of power and competing interests in the contest to get consistent. Although the market contract to act to curb excessive self-interest, but it is impossible to eliminate the possibility of generating such behavior. Moreover, many human activities does not depend on market contract, but by the trust to connect operation. Social trust is the main source of social security, you love, not indifference; your trust can reap trust. Security depends on a stable foundation of the order, this social order through human beings, and the division of labor between social organization and mutual trust exists. Everyone is a social division of labor system in the one, their duties, the security of its position, through the exchange and sharing of benefits arising from the division of labor. Once the duty dislocation, order will be harmed, everyone can truly feel that without the adverse consequences of the order. From Sudan to melamine from sulfur to dichlorvos, our chemistry knowledge is spread again, but our diet has become more insecure. Thus, if there is no mutual trust among members of society and cooperation instant community building will collapse. 

Rebuilding social trust, a lot of work needs to be done, first is 'trust.' Sincere and moving those people are sincere be it. A trust words, you can become a messenger of war and peace, a trust in the eyes, can inspire endless potential. Like with deceit, distrust is actually a silent injury, especially one which should give confidence when things were doubts that such injuries are devastating for both sides. Equality is fertile ground for trust and equal society can produce widespread trust. If the gap is too large, the rich the poor vigilance, then, the poor will not believe the rich. Only when people are able to ping each other, as do people become easy to get along with, but also facilitate the formation of shared values guidelines. Government's credibility is the social integrity of the country, so the government should attach great importance to the integrity of the building itself, through the improvement of relevant systems, efforts to build honesty, self-discipline, trustworthiness, mutual trust and social credit environment, the protection of those who make honest and trustworthy, deception dishonesty by punishment. Only by promoting openness in government affairs, improve the transparency of decision-making, in order to continuously enhance the credibility of the government sector in the construction of social credit system integrity and play an exemplary role.
(Two) safeguard judicial authority
Aristotle pointed out that the rule of law should contain two meanings: the laws have been enacted universal obedience, and we have to obey the law and should itself is making a very good law. [6] the basic law as a social institution, is to protect the basic weapon of social justice. Judicial authority is a direct consequence of weakening the law can not reveal all the details for the society, the rule does not exist, it will shake the foundation of social buildings. In recent years, Litigation petition issues, appeared a petition Judicial Justice petition tendency. Ie, the person suspected because of unmet demands of justice, and even to the body against the law, which is 'anarchist' pattern of behavior reflected in the judicial field. Such abandon judicial means, to seek authority to intervene behavior, is the 'rule of man' approach freak. For example, the parties made an adverse decision of the judiciary is not resolved through legal appeals, but in the psychological desire to see the 'high official', so there leapfrog visit, visits to Beijing and other 'Gao Yuzhuang' phenomenon. This 'big man ratio method' of consciousness, over time became the petitioner, 'Gao Yuzhuang' the driving force. When they complain to the formation of a complex consciousness, the firm will not give up even more determination. Some even took the court's final judgment to the petition, the petitioners construed as legal final decision after a program that makes the decision of social problems become endless. Parties to judicial decisions certainly have the right to require changes, but the rights and other rights, it should be exercised according to the law, and not their own way, not in a way that contrary to the public interest. If everyone in violent means to achieve their goals, while the judiciary is not conducive to fear conflict 'stability maintenance' and dare to insist on legal rulings, judicial activities will lead to inefficient or ineffective, to the detriment of the interests of all members of society. Of course, judicial power must be exercised in strict supervision, without supervision of judicial power, like other public authority, will swell and corruption. The supervision of the judicial authority, should respect the dignity of the law and the judicial authority shall comply with constitutional principles, those who favor the independent exercise of judicial powers. Safeguard judicial authority requires respect for the judicial administrative authority, obedience and support, there is no such respect, obedience and support, judicial decisions can not be implemented, the judicial authority naturally out of the question. Protect the livelihood of administrative power to achieve, maintain human rights, leaving the authority of the judicial constraints and support is also not be realized. Only the judiciary together with the community letter of the law, law-abiding and law enforcement in order to safeguard judicial authority, to ensure that the operation of the judicial system functions, to achieve the ideal building the rule of law can become a reality.
(Three) to strengthen the powers and regulatory constraints
Causing various problems of social identity dilemmas and almost all government officials and government oversight related negligence. Capital chasing profits, personal pursuit of interests, nothing to criticize, but if you lack the necessary rules constraints, leading to rampant consumerism, materialistic, World Wind Kusakabe, social environmental degradation, it should be said, the corruption of official ethics is the first cause. Local governments lose confidence, public resentment, which a big impact on social identity. Officials conduct a demonstration effect on society, but if official abuse of power, against the interests of the people, the people will feel that managers do not talk about social morality, why ask us to talk about ethics. The so-called 'official DeLong, China Johnson, national Xing; official ethics destroyed, Minde drop, state failure'; official ethics Akinori regime stability, official ethics mourning the loss of political power. Constraints of power, according to law, rules run, the only way to coordinate social relations, norms of social behavior and promote social justice. Social rules exist, then the support of the people for the better, the national economy for the better. Of course, we do not expect one to address social justice issues, the establishment of social rules are always bits and pieces from the beginning, perseverance and holding fast, stronger than wait and see. Asked him what so clear, as there is water flowing. Radical reform, the social fabric can be healthy, social identity to come back.
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