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有关癌症的英语

发表时间:2019-7-2  浏览次数:142  
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        医学英语一
  General evaluation. The diagnosis of cancer can be simple or it can challenge all the skills of clinical investigation.
  普遍诊断。癌症的诊断可非常容易,也可挑战临床研究的所有技能。
  In some instances metastatic tumors may be the first indication of cancer, and the primary lesion may escape efforts at detection.
  有时转移癌可能是癌症的第一指征,而原发损害却难以发现。
  The challenge is to detect cancer as early as possible, when it is most likely to be cured.
  我们所面临的挑战是尽早发现癌症,尽早发现增加治愈可能。
  One third of new patients have in situ or localized cancer, one quarter have regional lymph node disease,
  在所有新病人中,三分之一是原位癌,四分之一患局部淋巴结疾病,
  and one third have distant disease;the remaining few per cent have disease of undefined stage.
  三分之一有转移性疾病,少数病患的病情阶段尚未明确。
  Early detection of localized disease is aided by an awareness of risk factors in the family history, personal habits (tobacco, alcohol, sun exposure) and occupational exposure (asbestos, chromium, benzene).
  为尽早发现原位癌,我们要通过家族史、个人习惯(抽烟、饮酒、光照)以及职业性照射(石绵、铬、苯)的危险系数来扶助检测。
  It also requires attention to subtle and nonspecific symptoms of fatigue, weakness, weight loss, depression, headache, pain, changes in bowel habits,
  还要注意疲劳、虚弱、减重、抑郁、头疼、疼痛、排便、
  persistent cough or hoarseness, rectal bleeding,and other clues from the history.
  持续咳嗽、声音嘶哑、直肠出血、家族史等细微或非特定症状。
  In evaluating a patient who presents with nonspecific symptoms that might be indicators of malignancy, such as weight loss, fever, or fatigue,
  在诊断有非特定症状的病患时,例如减重、高烧或疲劳,这些或是恶性肿瘤的标志,
  the physician should carefully examine all mucosal surfaces, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum for masses or ulcerated lesions.
  医生要细心检测所有粘膜表面、乙状结肠,直肠肿块或溃疡性病变。
  In addition to elements of a routine examination, stool should be tested for occult blood.
  除了常规检测,粪便要进行隐血试验。
  More subtle clues may be seen in the skin with finding such as petechiae, hyper-pigmentation of skin folds (acanthosis nigricans) , or atypical moles (dysplastic nevi).
  我们还可以在皮肤上发现细微征兆,例如淤点、皮皱深度过度(黑棘皮症)或是非典型痣(发育不良性痣)
  Attention should be paid to the presence of systemic cancer-associated effects, such as neuromyopathies.
  要对出现的全身性癌症病症给予关注,比如神经肌病。
  Leads from laboratory testing may be found in unexplained anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypercalcemia, or elevation of serum LDH and acid or alkaline phosphatase levels.
  实验室检测提示不明原因的贫血,血小板减少,高钙血症以及血清乳酸脱氢酶、酸性磷酸酶和碱性磷酸酶水平的升高。
  Other frequent harbingers of cancer are pulmonary nodules or radiolucent bone lesions associated with new bone pain.
  其它常见先兆有肺结节,以及与新骨痛有关的透析性骨病。
  医学英语二
  As a pathologic entity, cancer is defined by its properties of uncontrolled local proliferation of cells,
  作为病理学实体,癌症指的是细胞恶性繁殖,且不可控,
  with invasion of adjacent normal structure and by distant spread, or metastasis, via the bloodstream of lymphatic or within a body cavity.
  并破坏周边正常细胞组织,通过淋巴系统或在体腔内完成转移。
  As a biologic entity, the malignant cell is defined by its ability to grow in tissue culture without the need for attachment to a firm surface
  作为生物体,肿瘤细胞的恶性性质是由下面因素决定的:在组织培养时,它无需附着于坚固的表面就能生长,
  and by its loss of responsiveness to growth regulatory signals that cause differentiation and suppress proliferation.
  并且它对能够引起分化和抑制增生的生长调节信号没有反应。
  Many malignant cells preserve the growth and antigenic properties characteristic of fetal cells,
  许多肿瘤细胞会继续增长,以及具有抗原性的癌胚细胞,
  secrete proteins characteristic of fetal tissues ( such as the a-fetoprotein of hepatocellular carcinomas and germ-cell tissues) ,
  还可分泌具有癌胚组织特性的蛋白质(例如肝癌细胞的甲胎蛋白和生殖细胞组织),
  and appear to be frozen in an early state of differentiation that recapitulates a specific stage in normal organ development.
  在正常器官生长的特殊阶段-分化,癌细胞处于冷冻状态。
  For example, malignancies arising from the lymphoid system reflect all stages and types of B-and T-lymphocyte development and preserve the same complex of immunoglobulin
  例如,淋巴系统中恶性肿瘤会体现在所有阶段,T淋巴细胞和B淋巴细胞的发展也同样如此,它保留了免疫球蛋白的复杂性,
  and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and cell surface proteins ( and in some cases potential for future differentiation) found in normal counterparts of the immune system.
  T细胞受体基因重排以及细胞表面蛋白质(在许多情况下,这些细胞会继续分化),我们可以在正常的免疫系统中发现。
  These properties have become the basis for classification, diagnosis, and even treatment of tumors,
  这些特性是进行分类、诊断甚至是治疗的基础,
  as, for example, classification of lymphoid tumors based on reactivity with monoclonal antibodies.
  例如根据单克隆抗体为基础的淋巴细胞分类。
  While the above characteristics are typical of most cancer cells, they are not universal.
  上述特性适用于多数癌细胞,但它们不是普遍的。
  Some endocrine-related tumors, for example, not only maintain well-differentiated morphologic features of their tissue of origin
  例如一些内分泌相关肿瘤,它们在形态上就维持了组织初期的良好分化,
  but also retain endocrine function and produce bioactive hormonal substances typical of the mature tissue, as in pheochromocy-tomas.
  还保留了内分泌功能,并产生了成熟组织具备的生物活性激素,比如同嗜铬细胞瘤。

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